Governmental Involvement in Construction





Legislative enactments -- laws passed by government bodies



House of Representatives



General Assembly

Administrative regulations adopted by government agencies

State Licensing boards






Federal courts


Diversity of Citizenships



Actions involving the United States

Violations of Federal Criminal Statutes

Federal Appellate Courts

U.S. Supreme Court

U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (11 regions)

Federal Trial Courts

U.S. District Courts (1 or more per state)

Specialized Federal Courts

Court of Claims

Tax Court

Patent Court

State Courts

State Appellate Courts

State Supreme Court

Intermediate Courts of Appeals

State Trial Courts

Superior, District, or Circuit Courts (county seat) -- judge presides, jury in certain cases

Criminal cases

Personal Injury


Domestic (divorce, custody, adoption)


Review of determinations of government agencies

Subordinate Courts

Municipal Courts

Small Claims Courts

"Pro Se" court

Justices of the Peace (do not exist in Illinois)

Court decisions (precedent)



Types of Law

Contract Law (enforceable agreement between parties)

Contract is an agreement between two or more parties

A real agreement (meeting of the minds)


Valid consideration (exchange)

Legal competence

Lawful form (architectural and construction contracts may be oral)

Tort Law (disputes between parties who have no contractual relationship)


Federal Government

U.S. Department of Justice (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990)

Consumer Products Safety Commission (safety glazing)

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

Fair Housing Amendments Act

Minimum Property Standards for One and Two-Family Dwellings

Minimum Property Standards for Multi-Family Dwellings

Federal Department of Transportation (Federal highways)


State Government

Illinois Department of Public Health

Illinois Plumbing Code

Licensing of Plumbers

Hospital Licensing

Plumbing Inspection Bureau

IEPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency)

IDOT (Illinois Department of Transportation) - regulates Illinois highways

CDB (Capital Development Board) produces and interprets the Illinois Accessibility Code

Illinois Attorney General - enforces the Illinois Environmental Barriers Act and Illinois Accessibility Code

Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation

Architects' Licensing

Professional Engineers' Licensing

Structural Engineers' Licensing

Landscape Architects' Title Registration

Interior Designers' Title Registration

Land Surveyor's Licensing

Real Estate Broker's and Salesperson's Licensing

IHDA (Illinois Housing Development Authority) - finances multi-family housing

Illinois State Board of Education - regulates design and construction of all public schools in Illinois


Local Government

Local Housing Authority (such as CHA)

Zoning Administrator

Plan Commission

Building Official

Plan Examiners

Building Inspectors

Design Review Commission

Landmarks (Historic Preservation) Commission

Landscape Commission

Accessibility Administrator

Board of Appeals

Bureau of Standards and Tests

Board of Appeals

City Council

Permit Expediters


Independent (non-governmental) Standard Setting Organizations

"Model" Building Code Organization

ICC (International Code Council) - created the International Building Code, now used by most suburbs around Chicago and most other cities and states in the country. This organization consolidated the following three code-writing groups in 2002:

BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators) which used to produce the BOCA/National Code.

ICBO (International Council of Building Officials) which used to produce the UBC (Uniform Building Code).

SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress International) which used to produce the SBC (Standard Building Code).

ASTM International (formerly called "American Society for Testing and Materials")

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)

UL (Underwriter's Laboratories)

NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) - produces a building code collection competing with the ICC; produces accepted standards for fire sprinkler systems and NFPA101 Life Safety Code which is required to be followed in addition to the IBC for most assembly type buildings, schools and hospitals.

NIBS (National Institute of Building Sciences)

Building Environment & Thermal Envelope Council

Building Seismic Safety Council

Facility Information Council

International Alliance for Interoperability (producing standards for computer-integrated design)

Multi-hazard Mitigation Council

Facility Maintenance and Operations Committee


Professional and Trade Associations

AIA (American Institute of Architects) - produce contract documents used extensively in the building industry

ALA (Association of Licensed Architects)

ASLA (American Society of Landscape Architects)

APA (American Planning Association)

CSI (Construction Specifications Institute)

NOMA (National Organization of Minority Architects)

ASCE (American Society of Civil Enginers)

SEAOI (Structural Engineers Association of Illinois)

PCI (Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute)

PCA (Portland Cement Association)

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute)

WWPA (Western Woods Products Association)

APA (Engineered Wood Association) formerly American Plywood Association, hence the name

AWI (Architectural Woodwork Institute)