from The Divine Comedy

                   by Dante Alighieri (c.1320)

                   Translated by Henry F. Cary 


Canto I


     The writer, having lost his way in a gloomy forest, and being hindered by

certain wild beasts from ascending a mountain, is met by Virgil, who promises

to show him the punishments of Hell, and afterward of Purgatory; and that he

shall then be conducted by Beatrice into Paradise. He follows the Roman poet.

Midway the path of life that men pursue

I found me in a darkling wood astray,

For the direct way had been lost to view.

Ah me, how hard a thing it is to say

What was this thorny wildwood intricate

Whose memory renews the first dismay!

Scarcely in death is bitterness more great:

But as concerns the good discovered there

The other things I saw will I relate.

In the midway^1 of this our mortal life,

I found me in a gloomy wood, astray

Gone from the path direct: and e'en to tell,

It were no easy task, how savage wild

That forest, how robust and rough its growth,

Which to remember only, my dismay

Renews, in bitterness not far from death.

Yet, to discourse of what there good befel,

All else will I relate discover'd there.

How first I enter'd it I scarce can say,

Such sleepy dulness in that instant weigh'd

My senses down, when the true path I left;

But when a mountain's foot I reach'd, where closed

The valley that had pierced my heart with dread,

I look'd aloft, and saw his shoulders broad

Already vested with that planet's beam,^2

Who leads all wanderers safe through every way.

Then was a little respite to the fear,

That in my heart's recesses deep had lain

All of that night, so pitifully past:

And as a man, with difficult short breath,

Forespent with toiling, 'scaped from sea to shore,

Turns to the perilous wide waste, and stands

A gaze; e'en so my spirit, that yet fail'd,

Struggling with terror, turn'd to view the straits

That none hath passed and lived. My weary frame

After short pause recomforted, again

I journey'd on over that lonely steep,

The hinder foot^3 still firmer. Scarce the ascent

Began, when, lo! a panther,^4 nimble, light,

And cover'd with a speckled skin, appear'd;

Nor, when it saw me, vanish'd; rather strove

To check my onward going; that oft - times,

With purpose to retrace my steps, I turn'd.

The hour was morning's prime, and on his way

Aloft the sun ascended with those stars,^5

That with him rose when Love Divine first moved

Those its fair works: so that with joyous hope

All things conspired to fill me, the gay skin

Of that swift animal, the matin dawn,

And the sweet season. Soon that joy was chased.

And by new dread succeeded, when in view

A lion came, 'gainst me as it appear'd,

With his head held aloft and hunger - mad,

That e'en the air was fear - struck. A she - wolf

Was at his heels, who in her leanness seem'd

Full of all wants, and many a land hath made

Disconsolate ere now. She with such fear

O'erwhelm'd me, at the sight of her appall'd,

That of the height all hope I lost. As one,

Who, with his gain elated, sees the time

When all unawares is gone, he inwardly

Mourns with heart - griping anguish; such was I,

Haunted by that fell beast, never at peace,

Who coming o'er against me, by degrees

Impell'd me where the sun in silence rests.

While to the lower space with backward step

I fell, my ken discern'd the form of one

Whose voice seem'd faint through lond disuse of speech.

When him in that great desert I espied,

"Have mercy on me," cried I out aloud,

"Spirit! or living man! whate'er thou be."

He answered: "Now not man, man once I was,

And born of Lombard parents, Mantuans both

By country, when the power of Julius yet

Was scarcely firm. At Rome my life was past,

Beneath the mild Augustus, in the time

Of fabled deities and false. A bard

Was I, and made Anchises' upright son

The subject of my song, who came from Troy,

When the flames prey'd on Ilium's haughty towers.

But thou, say wherefore to such perils past

Return'st thou? wherefore not this pleasant mount

Ascendest, cause and source of all delight?"

"And art thou then that Virgil, that well - spring,

From which such copious floods of eloquence

Have issued?" I with front abash'd replied.

"Glory and light of all the tuneful train!

May it avail me, that I long with zeal

Have sought thy volume, and with love immense

Have conn'd it o'er. My master thou, and guide!

Thou he from whom alone I have derived

That style, which for its beauty into fame

Exalts me. See the beast, from whom I fled.

O save me from her, thou illustrious sage!

For every vein and pulse throughout my frame

She hath made tremble." He, soon as he saw

That I was weeping, answer'd, "Thou must needs

Another way pursue, if thou wouldst 'scape

From out that savage wilderness. This beast,

At whom thou criest, her way will suffer none

To pass, and no less hinderance makes than death:

So bad and so accursed in her kind,

That never sated is her ravenous will,

Still after food more craving than before.

To many an animal in wedlock vile

She fastens, and shall yet to many more,

Until that greyhound^6 come, who shall destroy

Her with sharp pain. He will not life support

By earth nor its base metals, but by love,

Wisdom, and virtue; and his land shall be

The land 'twixt either Feltro.^7 In his might

Shall safety to Italia's plains arise,

For whose fair realm, Camilla, virgin pure,

Nisus, Euryalus, and Turnus fell.

He, with incessant chase, through every town

Shall worry, until he to hell at length

Restore her, thence by envy first let loose.

I, for thy profit pondering, now devise

That thou mayst follow me; and I, thy guide,

Will lead thee hence through an eternal space,

Where thou shalt hear despairing shrieks, and see

Spirits of old tormented, who invoke

A second death;^8 and those next view, who dwell

Content in fire,^9 for that they hope to come,

Whene'er the time may be, among the blest,

Into whose regions if thou then desire

To ascend, a spirit worthier^10 than I

Must lead thee, in whose charge, when I depart,

Thou shalt be left; for that Almighty King,

Who reigns above, a rebel to His law

Adjudges me; and therefore hath decreed

That, to His city, none through me should come.

He in all parts hath sway; there rules, there holds

His citadel and throne. O happy those,

Whom there He chuses!" I to him in few:

"Bard! by that God, whom thou didst not adore,

I do beseech thee (that this ill and worse

I may escape) to lead me where thou said'st,

That I Saint Peter's gate^11 may view, and those

Who, as thou tell'st, are in such dismal plight."

Onward he moved, I close his steps pursued.

[Footnote 1: "In the midway." The era of the poem is intended by these words

to be fixed to the thirty - fifth year of the poet's age, A.D. 1300. In this

Convito, human life is compared to an arch or bow, the highest point of which

is, in those well framed by nature, at their thirty - fifth year.]

[Footnote 2: "That planet's beam." The sun.]

[Footnote 3: "The hinder foot." In ascending a hill the weight of the body

rests on the hinder foot.]

[Footnote 4: "A panther." Pleasure or luxury.]

[Footnote 5: "With those stars." The sun was in Aries, in which sign he

supposes it to have begun its course at the creation.]

[Footnote 6: This passage has been commonly understood as a eulogium on the

liberal spirit of his Veronese patron, Can Grande della Scala.]

[Footnote 7: Verona, the country of Can della Scala, is situated between

Feltro, a city in the Marca Trivigiana, and Monte Feltro, a city in the

territory of Urbino.]

[Footnote 8: "A second death." "And in these days men shall seek death, and

shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them."

Rev. ix. 6.]

[Footnote 9: The spirits in Purgatory.]

[Footnote 10: "A spirit worthier." Beatrice, who conducts the Poet through


[Footnote 11: The gate of Purgatory, which the Poet feigns to be guarded by an

angel placed there by St. Peter.]

Canto II


     After the invocation, which poets are used to prefix to their works, he

shows that, on a consideration of his own strength, he doubted whether it

sufficed for the journey proposed to him, but that, being comforted by Virgil,

he at last took courage, and followed him as his guide and master.

Now was the day departing, and the air,

Imbrown'd with shadows, from their toils released

All animals on earth; and I alone

Prepared myself the conflict to sustain,

Both of sad pity, and that perilous road,

Which my unerring memory shall retrace.

O Muses! O high genius! now vouchsafe

Your aid. O mind! that all I saw hast kept

Safe in a written record, here thy worth

And eminent endowments come to proof.

I thus began: "Bard! thou who art my guide,

Consider well, if virtue be in me

Sufficient, ere to this high enterprise

Thou trust me. Thou hast told that Silvius' sire,^1

Yet clothed in corruptible flesh, among

The immortal tribes had entrance, and was there

Sensibly present. Yet if Heaven's great Lord,

Almighty foe to ill, such favor show'd

In contemplation of the high effect,

Both what and who from him should issue forth,

It seems in reason's judgment well deserved;

Sith he of Rome and of Rome's empire wide,

In Heaven's imperial height was chosen sire:

Both which, if truth be spoken, were ordain'd

And stablish'd for the holy place, where sits

Who to great Peter's sacred chair succeeds.

He from this journey, in thy song renown'd,

Learn'd things, that to his victory gave rise

And to the papal robe. In after - times

The Chosen Vessel^2 also travel'd there,

To bring us back assurance in that faith

Which is the entrance to salvation's way.

But I, why should I there presume? or who

Permits it? not Aeneas I, nor Paul.

Myself I deem not worthy, and none else

Will deem me. I, if on this voyage then

I venture, fear it will in folly end.

Thou, who art wise, better my meaning know'st,

Than I can speak." As one, who unresolves

What he hath late resolved, and with new thoughts

Changes his purpose, from his first intent

Removed; e'en such was I on that dun coast,

Wasting in thought my enterprise, at first

So eagerly embraced. "If right thy words

I scan," replied that shade magnanimous,

"Thy soul is by vile fear assail'd, which oft

So overcasts a man, that he recoils

From noblest resolution, like a beast

At some false semblance in the twilight gloom.

That from this terror thou mayst free thyself,

I will instruct thee why I came, and what

I heard in that same instant, when for thee

Grief touch'd me first. I was among the tribe,

Who rest suspended,^3 when a dame, so blest

And lovely I besought her to command,

Call'd me; her eyes were brighter than the star

Of day; and she, with gentle voice and soft,

Angelically tuned, her speech address'd:

'O courteous shade of Mantua! thou whose fame

Yet lives, and shall live long as nature lasts!

A friend, not of my fortune but myself,

On the wide desert in his road has met

Hindrance so great, that he through fear has turn'd.

Now much I dread lest he past help have stray'd,

And I be risen too late for his relief,

From what in heaven of him I heard. Speed now,

And by thy eloquent persuasive tongue,

And by all means for his deliverance meet,

Assist him. So to me will comfort spring.

I, who now bid thee on this errand forth,

Am Beatrice;^4 from a place I come

Revisited with joy. Love brought me thence,

Who prompts my speech. When in my Master's sight

I stand, thy praise to him I oft will tell.'

"She then was silent, and I thus began:

'O Lady! by whose influence alone

Mankind excels whatever is contain'd

Within that heaven which hath the smallest orb,

So thy command delights me, that to obey,

If it were done already, would seem late.

No need hast thou further to speak thy will:

Yet tell the reason, why thou art not loth

To leave that ample space, where to return

Thou burnest, for this centre here beneath.'

"She then: 'Since thou so deeply wouldst inquire,

I will instruct thee briefly why no dread

Hinders my entrance here. Those things alone

Are to be fear'd whence evil may proceed;

None else, for none are terrible beside.

I am so framed by God, thanks to His grace!

That any sufferance of your misery

Touches me not, nor flame of that fierce fire

Assails me. In high Heaven a blessed Dame^5

Resides, who mourns with such effectual grief

That hindrance, which I send thee to remove,

That God's stern judgment to her will inclines.'

To Lucia,^6 calling, her she thus bespake:

'Now doth thy faithful servant need thy aid,

And I commend him to thee.' At her word

Sped Lucia, of all cruelty the foe,

And coming to the place, where I abode

Seated with Rachel, her of ancient days,

She thus address'd me: "Thou true praise of God!

Beatrice! why is not thy succour lent

To him, who so much loved thee, as to leave

For thy sake all the multitude admires?

Dost thou not hear how pitiful his wail,

Nor mark the death, which in the torrent flood,

Swoln mightier than a sea, him struggling holds?"

Ne'er among men did any with such speed

Haste to their profit, flee from their annoy,

As, when these words were spoken, I came here,

Down from my blessed seat, trusting the force

Of thy pure eloquence, which thee, and all

Who well have mark'd it, into honor brings.'

"When she had ended, her bright beaming eyes

Tearful she turn'd aside; whereat I felt

Redoubled zeal to serve thee. As she will'd,

Thus am I come: I saved thee from the beast,

Who thy near way across the goodly mount

Prevented. What is this comes o'er thee than?

Why, why dost thou hang back? why in thy breast

Harbour vile fear? why hast not courage there,

And noble daring; since three maids,^7 so blest,

Thy safety plan, e'en in the court of Heaven;

And so much certain good my words forebode?"

As florets, by the frosty air of night

Bent down and closed, when day has blanch'd their leaves,

Rise all unfolded on their spiry stems;

So was my fainting vigor new restored,

And to my heart such kindly courage ran,

That I as one undaunted soon replied:

"O full of pity she, who undertook

My succour! and thou kind, who didst perform

So soon her true behest! With such desire

Thou hast disposed me to renew my voyage,

That my first purpose fully is resumed.

Lead on: one only will is in us both.

Thou art my guide, my master thou, and lord,"

So spake I; and when he had onward moved,

I enter'd on the deep and woody way.

[Footnote 1: "Silvius' sire." Aeneas.]

[Footnote 2: "The Chosen Vessel." St. Paul.]

[Footnote 3: The spirits in Limbo, neither admitted to a state of glory nor

doomed to punishment.]

[Footnote 4: "Beatrice." The daughter of Folco Portinari, who is here invested

with the character of celestial wisdom or theology.]

[Footnote 5: "A blessed Dame." The Divine Mercy.]

[Footnote 6: "Lucia." The enlightening Grace of Heaven; as it is commonly


[Footnote 7: "Three maids." The Divine Mercy, Lucia and Beatrice.]

Canto III


     Dante, following Virgil, comes to the gate of Hell; where, after having

read the dreadful words that are written thereon, they both enter. Here, as he

understands from Virgil, those were punished who had passed their time (for

living it could not be called) in a state of apathy and indifference both to

good and evil. Then, pursuing their way, they arrive at the river Acheron; and

there find the old ferryman Charon, who takes the spirits over to the opposite

shore; which, as soon as Dante reaches, he is seized with terror, and falls

into a trance.

"Through me you pass into the city of woe:

Through me you pass into eternal pain:

Through me among the people lost for aye.

Justice the founder of my fabric moved:

To rear me was the task of Power divine,

Supremest Wisdom, and primeval Love.^1

Before me things create were none, save things

Eternal, and eternal I endure.

All hope abandon, ye who enter here."

Such characters, in color dim, I mark'd

Over a portal's lofty arch inscribed.

Whereat I thus: "Master, these words import

Hard meaning." He as one prepared replied:

"Here thou must all distrust behind thee leave;

Here be vile fear extinguish'd. We are come

Where I have told thee we shall see the souls

To misery doom'd, who intellectual good

Have lost." And when his hand he had stretch'd forth

To mine, with pleasant looks, whence I was cheer'd,

Into that secret place he led me on.

Here sighs, with lamentations and loud moans,

Resounded through the air pierced by no star,

That e'en I wept at entering. Various tongues,

Horrible languages, outcries of woe,

Accents of anger, voices deep and hoarse,

With hands together smote that swell'd the sounds,

Made up a tumult, that forever whirls

Round through that air with solid darkness stain'd,

Like to the sand that in the whirlwind flies.

I then, with horror yet encompast, cried:

"O master! what is this I hear? what race

Are these, who seem so overcome with woe?"

He thus to me: "This miserable fate

Suffer the wretched souls of those, who lived

Without or praise or blame, with that ill band

Of angels mix'd, who nor rebellious proved,

Nor yet were true to God, but for themselves

Were only. From his bounds Heaven drove them forth

Not to impair his lustre; nor the depth

Of Hell receives them, lest the accursed tribe

Should glory thence with exultation vain."

I then: "Master! what doth aggrieve them thus,

That they lament so loud?" He straight replied:

"That will I tell thee briefly. These of death

No hope may entertain: and their blind life

So meanly passes, that all other lots

They envy. Fame of them the world hath none,

Nor suffers; Mercy and Justice scorn them both.

Speak not of them, but look, and pass them by."

And I, who straightway look'd, beheld a flag,

Which whirling ran around so rapidly,

That it no pause obtain'd: and following came

Such a long train of spirits, I should ne'er

Have thought that death so many had despoil'd.

When some of these I recognized, I saw

And knew the shade of him, who to base fear^2

Yielding, abjured his high estate. Forthwith

I understood, for certain, this the tribe

Of those ill spirits both to God displeasing

And to His foes. These wretches, who ne'er lived,

Went on in nakedness, and sorely stung

By wasps and hornets, which bedew'd their cheeks

With blood, that, mix'd with tears, dropp'd to their feet,

And by disgustful worms was gather'd there.

Then looking further onwards, I beheld

A throng upon the shore of a great stream:

Whereat I thus: "Sir! grant me now to know

Whom here we view, and whence impell'd they seem

So eager to pass o'er, as I discern

Through the blear light?" He thus to me in few:

"This shalt thou know, soon as our steps arrive

Beside the woful tide of Acheron."

Then with eyes downward cast, and fill'd with shame,

Fearing my words offensive to his ear,

Till we had reach'd the river, I from speech

Abstain'd. And lo! toward us in a bark

Comes on an old man, hoary white with eld,

Crying, "Woe to you, wicked spirits! hope not

Ever to see the sky again. I come

To take you to the other shore across,

Into eternal darkness, there to dwell

In fierce heat and in ice. And thou, who there

Standest, live spirit! get thee hence, and leave

These who are dead." But soon as he beheld

I left them not, "By other way," said he,

"By other haven shalt thou come to shore,

Not by this passage; thee a nimbler boat

Must carry." Then to him thus spake my guide:

"Charon! thyself torment not: so 'tis will'd,

Where will and power are one: ask thou no more."

Straightway in silence fell the shaggy cheeks

Of him, the boatman o'er the livid lake,

Around whose eyes glared wheeling flames. Meanwhile

Those spirits, faint and naked, color changed,

And gnash'd their teeth, soon as the cruel words

They heard. God and their parents they blasphemed,

The human kind, the place, the time, and seed,

That did engender them and give them birth,

Then all together sorely wailing drew

To the curst strand, that every man must pass

Who fears not God. Charon, demoniac form,

With eyes of burning coal, collects them all,

Beckoning, and each, that lingers, with his oar

Strikes. As fall off the light autumnal leaves

One still another following, till the bough

Strews all its honours on the earth beneath;

E'en in like manner Adam's evil brood

Cast themselves, one by one, down from the shore,

Each at a beck, as falcon at his call.^3

Thus go they over through the umber'd wave;

And ever they on the opposing bank

Be landed, on this side another throng

Still gathers. "Son," thus spake the courteous guide,

"Those who die subject to the wrath of God

All here together come from every clime

And to o'erpass the river are not loth:

For so Heaven's justice goads them on, that fear

Is turn'd into desire. Hence ne'er hath past

Good spirit. If of thee Charon complain,

Now mayst thou know the import of his words."

This said, the gloomy region trembling shook

So terribly, that yet with clammy dews

Fear chills my brow. The sad earth gave a blast,

That, lightening, shot forth a vermilion flame,

Which all my senses conquer'd quite, and I

Down dropp'd, as one with sudden slumber seized.

[Footnote 1: "Power," Wisdom," "Love," the three Persons of the Blessed


[Footnote 2: This is commonly understood of Celestine V, who abdicated the

papal power in 1249. Venturi mentions a work written by Innocenzio Barcellini,

of the Celestine order, and printed at Milan in 1701, in which an attempt is

made to put a different interpretation on this passage. Lombardi would apply

it to some one of Dante's fellow - citizens, who, refusing, through avarice or

want of spirit, to support the party of the Bianchi at Florence, had been the

main occasion of the miseries that befell them. But the testimony of Fazio

degli Uberti, who lived so near the time of our author, seems almost decisive

on this point. He expressly speaks of the Pope Celestine as being in Hell.]

[Footnote 3: "As a falcon at his call." This is Vellutello's explanation, and

seems preferable to that commonly given: "as a bird that is enticed to the

cage by the call of another."]

Canto IV


     The Poet, being roused by a clap of thunder, and following his guide

onward, descends into Limbo, which is the first circle of Hell, where he finds

the souls of those, who although they have lived virtuously and have not to

suffer for great sins, nevertheless, through lack of baptism, merit not the

bliss of Paradise. Hence he is led on by Virgil to descend into the second


Broke the deep slumber in my brain a crash

Of heavy thunder, that I shook myself,

As one by main force roused. Risen upright,

My rested eyes I moved around, and search'd

With fixed ken, to know what place it was

Wherein I stood. For certain, on the brink

I found me of the lamentable vale,

The dread abyss, that joins a thunderous sound

Of plaints innumerable. Dark and deep,

And thick with clouds o'erspread, mine eye in vain

Explored its bottom, nor could aught discern.

"Now let us to the blind world there beneath

Descend," the bard began, all pale of look:

"I go the first, and thou shalt follow next."

Then I, his alter'd hue perceiving, thus:

"How may I speed, if thou yieldest to dread,

Who still art wont to comfort me in doubt?"

He then: "The anguish of that race below

With pity stains my cheek, which thou for fear

Mistakest. Let us on. Our length of way

Urges to haste." Onward, this said, he moved;

And entering led me with him, on the bounds

Of the first circle that surrounds the abyss.

Here, as mine ear could note, no plaint was heard

Except of sighs, that made the eternal air

Tremble, not caused by tortures, but from grief

Felt by those multitudes, many and vast,

Of men, women, and infants. Then to me

The gentle guide: "Inquirest thou not what spirits

Are these which thou beholdest? Ere thou pass

Farther, I would tkou know, that these of sin

Were blameless; and if aught they merited,

If profits not, since baptism was not heirs,

The portal^1 to thy faith. If they before

The Gospel lived, they served not God aright;

And among such am I. For these defects,

And for no other evil, we are lost;

Only so far afflicted, that we live

Desiring without hope." Sore grief assail'd

My heart at hearing this, for well I knew

Suspended in that Limbo many a soul

Of mighty worth. "O tell me, sire revered!

Tell me, my master!" I began, through wish

Of full assurance in that holy faith

Which vanquishes all error; "say, did e'er

Any, or through his own or other's merit,

Come forth from thence, who afterward was blest?"

Piercing the secret purport^2 of my speech,

He answer'd: "I was new to that estate

When I beheld a puissant one^3 arrive

Amongst us, with victorious trophy crown'd.

He forth the shade of our first parent drew,

Abel, his child, and Noah righteous man,

Of Moses lawgiver for faith approved,

Of patriarch Abraham, and David king,

Israel with his sire and with his sons,

Nor without Rachel whom so hard he won,

And others many more, whom He to bliss

Exalted. Before these, be thou assured,

No spirit of human kind was ever saved."

We, while he spake, ceased not our onward road,

Still passing through the wood; for so I name

Those spirits thick beset. We were not far

On this side from the summit, when I kenn'd

A flame, that o'er the darken'd hemisphere

Prevailing shined. Yet we a little space

Were distant, not so far but I in part

Discover'd that a tribe in honour high

That placed possess'd. "O thou, who every art

And science valuest! who are these, that boast

Such honor, separate from all the rest?"

He answer'd: "The renown of their great names,

That echoes through your world above, acquires

Favor in Heaven, which holds them thus advanced."

Meantime a voice I heard: "Honor the bard

Sublime! his shade returns, that left us late!"

No sooner ceased the sound, that I beheld

Four mighty spirits toward us bend their steps,

Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad.

When thus my master kind began: "Mark him,

Who in his right hand bears that falchion keen,

The other three preceding, as their lord.

This is that Homer, of all bards supreme:

Flaccus the next, in satire's vein excelling;

The third is Naso; Lucan is the last.

Because they all that appellation own,

With which the voice singly accosted me,

Honouring they greet me thus, and well they judge."

So I beheld united the bright school

Of him the monarch of sublimest song,^4

That o'er the others like an eagle soars.

When they together short discourse had held,

They turn'd to me, with salutation kind

Beckoning me; at the which my master smiled:

Nor was this all; but greater honour still

They gave me, for they made me of their tribe;

And I was sixth amid so learn'd a band.

Far as the luminous beacon on we pass'd,

Speaking of matters, then befitting well

To speak, now fitter left untold. At foot

Of a magnificent castle we arrived,

Seven times with lofty walls begirt, and around

Defended by a pleasant stream. O'er this

As o'er dry land we pass'd. Next, through seven gates,

I with those sages enter'd, and we came

Into a mead with lively verdure fresh.

There dwelt a race, who slow their eyes around

Majestically moved, and in their port

Bore eminent authority: they spake

Seldom, but all their words were tuneful sweet.

We to one side retired, into a place

Open and bright and lofty, whence each one

Stood manifest to view. Incontinent,

There on the green enamel of the plain

Were shown me the great spirits, by whose sight

I am exalted in my own esteem.

Electra^5 there I saw accompanied

By many, among whom Hector I knew,

Anchises' pious son, and with hawk's eye

Caesar all arm'd, and by Camilla there

Penthesilea. On the other side,

Old King Latinus seated by his child

Lavinia, and that Brutus I beheld

Who Tarquin chased, Lucretia, Cato's wife

Marcia, with Julia^6 and Cornelia there;

And sole apart retired, the Soldan fierce.^7

Then when a little more I raised my brow,

I spied the master of the sapient throng,^8

Seated amid the philosophic train.

Him all admire, all pay him reverence due.

There Socrates and Plato both I mark'd

Nearest to him in rank, Democritus,

Who sets the world at chance,^9 Diogenes,

With Heraclitus, and Empedocles,

And Anaxagoras, and Thales sage,

Zeno, and Dioscorides well read

In nature's secret lore. Orpheus I mark'd

And Linus, Tully and moral Seneca,

Euclid and Ptolemy, Hippocrates,

Galenus, Avicen, and him who made

That commentary vast, Averroes.^10

Of all to speak at full were vain attempt;

For my wide theme so urges, that oft - times

My words fall short of what bechanced. In two

The six associates part. Another way

My sage guide leads me, from that air serene,

Into a climate ever vex'd with storms:

And to a part I come, where no light shines.

[Footnote 1: "Portal." "Porta della fede." This was an alteration made in the

text by the Academicians della Crusca, on the authority, as it would appear,

of only two manuscripts. The other reading is, "parte della fede," "part of

the faith."]

[Footnote 2: "Secret purport." Lombardi well observes that Dante seems to have

been restrained by awe and reverence from uttering the name of Christ in this

place of torment; and that for the same cause, probably, it does not occur

once throughout the whole of this first part of the poem.]

[Footnote 3: "A puissant one." Our Savior.]

[Footnote 4: "The monarch of sublimest song." Homer.]

[Footnote 5: Daughter of Atlas, and mother of Dardanus, founder of Troy.]

[Footnote 6: "Julia." The daughter of Julius Caesar, and wife of Pompey.]

[Footnote 7: "The Soldan fierce." Saladin, or Salaheddin, the rival of Richard

Coeur de Lion.]

[Footnote 8: "The master of the sapient throng." "Maestro di color che sanno."


[Footnote 9: "Who sets the world at chance." Democritus, who maintained the

world to have been formed by the fortuitous concourse of atoms.]

[Footnote 10: Averroes, called by the Arabians Ibn Roschd, translated and

commented on the works of Aristotle.]

Canto V


     Coming into the second circle of Hell, Dante at the entrance beholds

Minos the Infernal Judge, by whom he is admonished to beware how he enters

those regions. Here he witnesses the punishment of carnal sinners, who are

tossed about ceaselessly in the dark air by the most furious winds. Amont

these, he meets with Francesca of Rimini, through pity at whose sad tale he

falls fainting to the ground.

From the first circle I descended thus

Down to the second, which, a lesser space

Embracing, so much more of grief contains,

Provoking bitter moans. There Minos stands,

Grinning with ghastly feature: he, of all

Who enter, strict examining the crimes,

Gives sentence, and dismisses them beneath,

According as he foldeth him around:

For when before him comes the ill - fated soul,

It all confesses; and that judge severe

Of sins, considering what place in Hell

Suits the transgression, with his tail so oft

Himself encircles, as degrees beneath

He dooms it to descend. Before him stand

Always a numerous throng; and in his turn

Each one to judgment passing, speaks, and hears

His fate, thence downward to his dwelling hurl'd.

"O thou! who to this residence of woe

Approachest!" when he saw me coming, cried

Minos, relinquishing his dread employ,

"Look how thou enter here; beware in whom

Thou place thy trust; let not the entrance broad

Deceive thee to thy harm." To him my guide:

"Wherefore exclaimest? Hinder not his way

By destiny appointed; so 'tis will'd,

Where will and power are one. Ask thou no more."

Now 'gin the rueful wailings to be heard.

Now am I come where many a plaining voice

Smites on mine ear. Into a place I came

Where light was silent all. Bellowing there groan'd

A noise, as of a sea in tempest torn

By warring winds. The stormy blast of Hell

With restless fury drives the spirits on,

Whirl'd round and dash'd amain with sore annoy.

When they arrive before the ruinous sweep,

There shrieks are heard, there lamentations, moans,

And blasphemies 'gainst the good Power in Heaven.

I understood, that to this torment sad

The carnal sinners are condemn'd, in whom

Reason by lust is sway'd. As, in large troops

And multitudinous, when winter reigns,

The starlings on their wings are borne abroad;

So bears the tyrannous gust those evil souls.

On this side and on that, above, below,

It drives them: hope of rest to solace them

Is none, nor e'en of milder pang. As cranes,

Chanting their dolorous notes, traverse the sky,

Stretch'd out in long array; so I beheld

Spirits, who came loud wailing, hurried on

By their dire doom. Then I: "Instructor! who

Are these, by the black air so scourged?" "The first

'Mong those, of whom thou question'st," he replied,

"O'er many tongues was empress. She in vice

Of luxury was so shameless, that she made

Liking be lawful by promulged decree,

To clear the blame she had herself incurr'd.

This is Semiramis, of whom 'tis writ,

That she succeeded Ninus her espoused;

And held the land, which now the Soldan rules.

The next in amorous fury slew herself,

And to Sichaeus' ashes broke her faith:

Then follows Cleopatra, lustful queen."

There mark'd I Helen, for whose sake so long

The time was fraught with evil; there the great

Achilles, who with love fought to the end.

Paris I saw, and Tristan; and beside,

A thousand more he show'd me, and by name

Pointed them out, whom love bereaved of life.

When I had heard my sage instructor name

Those dames and knights of antique days, o'erpower'd

By pity, well - nigh in amaze my mind

Was lost; and I began: "Bard! willingly

I would address those two together coming,

Which seem so light before the wind." He thus:

"Note thou, when nearer they to us approach.

Then by that love which carries them along,

Entreat; and they will come." Soon as the wind

Sway'd them towards us, I thus framed my speech:

"O wearied spirits! come, and hold discourse

With us, if by none else restrain'd. As doves

By fond desire invited, on wide wings

And firm, to their sweet nest returning home,

Cleave the air, wafted by their will along;

Thus issued, from that troop where Dido ranks,

They, through the ill air speeding: with such force

My cry prevail'd, by strong affection urged.

"O gracious creature and benign! who go'st

Visiting, through this element obscure,

Us, who the world with bloody stain imbrued;

If, for a friend, the King of all, we own'd,

Our prayer to him should for thy peace arise,

Since thou hast pity on our evil plight.

Of whatsoe'er to hear or to discourse

It pleases thee, that will we hear, of that

Freely with thee discourse, while e'er the wind,

As now, is mute. The land,^1 that gave me birth,

Is situate on the coast, where Po descends

To rest in ocean with his sequent streams.

"Love, that in gentle heart is quickly learnt,

Entangled him by that fair form, from me

Ta'en in such cruel sort, as grieves me still:

Love, that denial takes from none beloved,

Caught me with pleasing him so passing well,

That, as thou seest, he yet deserts me not.

Love brought us to one death: Caina^2 waits

The soul, who spilt our life." Such were their words;

At hearing which, downward I bent my looks,

And held them there so long, that the bard cried:

"What art thou pondering?" I in answer thus:

"Alas! by what sweet thoughts, what fond desire

Must they at length to that ill pass have reach'd!"

Then turning, I to them my speech address'd,

And thus began: "Francesca!^3 your sad fate

Even to tears my grief and pity moves.

But tell me; in the time of your sweet sighs,

By what, and how Love granted, that ye knew

Your yet uncertain wishes?" She replied:

"No greater grief than to remember days

Of joy, when misery is at hand. That kens

Thy learn'd instructor. Yet so eagerly

If thou art bent to know the primal root,

From whence our love gat being, I will do

As one, who weeps and tells his tale. One day,

For our delight we read of Lancelot,^4

How him love thrall'd. Alone we were, and no

Suspicion near us. Oft - times by that reading

Our eyes were drawn together, and the hue

Fled from our alter'd cheek. But at one point

Alone we fell. When of that smile we read,

The wished smile so raptorously kiss'd

By one so deep in love, then he, who ne'er

From me shall separate, at once my lips

All trembling kiss'd. The book and writer both

Were love's purveyors. In its leaves that day

We read no more." While thus one spirit spake,

The other wail'd so sorely, that heart - struck

I, through compassion fainting, seem'd not far

From death, and like a corse fell to the ground.

[Footnote 1: "The land." Ravenna.]

[Footnote 2: "Caina." The place to which murderers are doomed.]

[Footnote 3: "Francesca." Francesca, the daughter of Guido da Polenta, Lord of

Ravenna, was given by her father in marriage to Gianciotto, son of Malatesta,

Lord of Rimini, a man of extraordinary courage, but deformed in his person.

His brother Paolo, who unhappily possessed those graces which the husband of

Francesca wanted, engaged her affections; and being taken in adultery, they

were both put to death by the enraged Gianciotto.]

[Footnote 4: "Lancelot." One of the Knights of the Round Table, and the lover

of Ginevra, or Guinever, celebrated in romance. The incident alluded to seems

to have made a strong impression on the imagination of Dante, who introduces

it again, in the Paradise, Canto xvi.]

Canto VI


     On his recovery, the Poet finds himself in the third circle, where the

gluttonous are punished. Their torment is, to lie in the mire, under a

continual and heavy storm of hail, snow, and discolored water; Cerberus,

meanwhile barking over them with his threefold throat, and rending them

piecemeal. One of these, who on earth was named Ciacco, foretells the

divisions with which Florence is about to be distracted. Dante proposes a

question to his guide, who solves it; and they proceed toward the fourth


My sense reviving, that erewhile had droop'd

With pity for the kindred shades, whence grief

O'ercame me wholly, straight around I see

New torments, new tormented souls, which way

Soe'er I move, or turn, or bend my sight.

In the third circle I arrive, of showers

Ceaseless, accursed, heavy and cold, unchanged

For ever, both in kind and in degree.

Large hail, discolor'd water, sleety flaw

Through the dun midnight air stream'd down amain:

Stank all the land whereon that tempest fell.

Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange,

Through his wide threefold throat, barks as a dog

Over the multitude immersed beneath.

His eyes glare crimson, black his unctuous beard,

His belly large, and claw'd the hands, with which

He tears the spirits, flays them, and their limbs

Piecemeal disparts. Howling there spread, as curs,

Under the rainy deluge, with one side

The other screening, oft they roll them round,

A wretched, godless crew. When that great worm^1

Descried us, savage Cerberus, he oped

His jaws, and the fangs show'd us; not a limb

Of him but trembled. Then my guide, his palms

Expanding on the ground, thence fill'd with earth

Raised them, and cast it in his ravenous maw.

E'en as a dog, that yelling bays for food

His keeper, when the morsel comes, lets fall

His fury, bent alone with eager haste

To swallow it; so dropp'd the loathsome cheeks

Of demon Cerberus, who thundering stuns

The spirits, that they for deafness wish in vain.

We, o'er the shades thrown prostrate by the brunt

Of the heavy tempest passing, set our feet

Upon their emptiness, that substance seem'd.

They all along the earth extended lay,

Save one, that sudden raised himself to sit,

Soon as that way he saw us pass. "O thou!"

He cried, "who through the infernal shades art led,

Own, if again thou know'st me. Thou wast framed

Or ere my frame was broken." I replied:

"The anguish thou endurest perchance so takes

Thy form from my remembrance, that it seems

As if I saw thee never. But inform

Me thou art, that in a place so sad

Art set, and in such torment, that although

Other be greater, none disgusteth more."

He thus in answer to my words rejoin'd:

"Thy city, heap'd with envy to the brim,

Aye, that the measure overflows its bounds,

Held me in brighter days. Ye citizens

Were wont to name me Ciacco.^2 For the sin

Of gluttony, damned vice, beneath this rain,

E'en as thou seest, I with fatigue am worn:

Nor I sole spirit in this woe: all these

Have by like crime incurr'd like punishment."

No more he said, and I my speech resumed:

"Ciacco! thy! dire affliction grieves me much,

Even to tears. But tell me, if thou know'st,

What shall at length befall the citizens

of the divided city;^3 whether any

Just one inhabit there: and tell the cause,

Whence jarring Discord hath assail'd it thus."

He then: "After long striving they will come

To blood; and the wild party from the woods^4

Will chase the other^5 with much injury forth.

Then it behooves that this must fall,^6 within

Three solar circles;^7 and the other rise

By borrow'd force of one, who under shore

Now rests.^8 It shall a long space hold aloof

Its forehead, keeping under heavy weight

The other opprest, indignant at the load,

And grieving sore. The just are two in number.^9

But they neglected. Avarice, envy, pride,

Three fatal sparks, have set the hearts of all

On fire." Here ceased the lamentable sound;

And I continued thus: "Still would I learn

More from thee, further parley still entreat.

Of Farinata and Tegghiaio^10 say,

They who so well deserved; of Giacopo,^11

Arrigo, Mosca,^12 and the rest, who bent

Their minds on working good. Oh! tell me where

They bide, and to their knowledge let me come.

For I am prest with keen desire to hear

If Heaven's sweet cup, or poisonous drug of Hell,

Be to their lip assign'd." He answer'd straight:

"These are yet blacker spirits. Various crimes

Have sunk them deeper in the dark abyss.

If thou so far descendest, thou mayst see them.

But to the pleasant world, when thou return'st,

Of me make mention, I entreat thee, there.

No more I tell thee, answer thee no more."

This said, his fixed eyes he turn'd askance,

A little eyed me, then bent down his head,

And 'midst his blind companions with it fell.

When thus my guide: "No more his bed he leaves,

Ere the last angel - trumpet blow. The Power

Adverse to these shall then in glory come,

Each one forthwith to his sad tomb repair,

Resume his fleshly vesture and his form,

And hear the eternal doom re - echoing rend

The vault." So pass'd we through that mixture foul

Of spirits and rain, with tardy steps; meanwhile

Touching, though slightly, on the life to come.

For thus I question'd: "Shall these tortures, Sir!

When the great sentence passes, be increased,

Or mitigated, or as now severe?"

He then: "Consult thy knowledge; that decides,

That, as each thing to more perfection grows,

It feels more sensibly both good and pain.

Though ne'er to true perfection may arrive

This race accurst, yet nearer then, than now,

They shall approach it." Compassing that path,

Circuitous we journey'd; and discourse,

Much more than I relate, between us pass'd:

Till at the point, whence the steps led below,

Arrived, there Plutus, the great foe, we found.

[Footnote 1: "When that great worm, descried us . . . he opened his jaws." In

Canto xxxiv. Lucifer is called "The abhorred worm, that boreth through the


[Footnote 2: "Ciriaco." So called from his inordinate appetite; "ciacco," in

Italian, signifying a pig. The real name of this glutton has not been

transmitted to us.]

[Footnote 3: "The divided city." The city of Florence, divided into the

Bianchi and Neri factions.]

[Footnote 4: The wild party from the woods." So called, because it was headed

by Veri de' Cerchi, whose family had lately come into the city from Acona, and

the woody country of the Val di Nievole.]

[Footnote 5: "The other." The opposite party of the Neri, at the head of which

was Corso Donati.]

[Footnote 6: "This must fall." The Bianchi.]

[Footnote 7: "Three solar circles." Three years.]

[Footnote 8: "Of one, who under shore now rests." Charles of Valois, by whose

means the Neri were replaced.]

[Footnote 9: "The just are two in number." Who these two were, the

commentators are not agreed. Some understand them to be Dante himself and his

friend Guido Cavalcanti.]

[Footnote 10: "Of Farinata and Tegghiaio." See Canto x. and notes, and Canto

xvi. and notes.]

[Footnote 11: "Giacopo." Giacopo Rusticucci. See Canto xvi. and notes.]

[Footnote 12: "Arrigo, Mosca." Of Arrigo, who is said by the commentators to

have been of the noble family of the Fifanti, no mention afterward occurs.

Mosca degli Uberti, or de' Lamberti, is introduced in Canto xxviii.]

Canto VII


     In the present Canto, Dante describes his descent into the fourth circle,

at the beginning of which he sees Plutus stationed. Here one like doom awaits

the prodigal and thenavaricious; which is, to meet in direful conflict,

rolling great weights against each other with mutual upbraidings. From hence

Virgil takes occasion to show how vain the goods that are committed into the

charge of Fortune; and this moves our author to inquire what being that

Fortune is, of whom he speaks: which question being resolved, they go down

into the fifth circle, where they find the wrathful and gloomy tormented in

the Stygian lake. Having made a compass round great part of this lake, they

come at last to the base of a lofty tower.

"Ah me! O Satan! Satan!"^1 loud exclaim'd

Plutus, in accent hoarse of wild alarm:

And the kind sage, whom no event surprised,

To comfort me thus spake: "Let not thy fear

Harm thee, for power in him, be sure, is none

To hinder down this rock thy safe descent."

Then to that swoln lip turning, "Peace!" he cried,

"Curst wolf! thy fury inward on thyself

Prey, and consume thee! Through the dark profound,

Not without cause, he passes. So 'tis will'd

On high, there where the great Archangel pour'd

Heaven's vengeance on the first adulterer proud."

As sails, full spread and bellying with the wind,

Drop suddenly collapsed, if the mast split;

So to the ground down dropp'd the cruel fiend.

Thus we, descending to the fourth steep ledge,

Gain'd on the dismal shore, that all the woe

Hems in of all the universe. Ah me!

Almighty Justice! in what store thou heap'st

New pains, new troubles, as I here beheld.

Wherefore doth fault of ours bring us to this?

E'en as a billow, on Charybdis rising,

Against encounter'd billow dashing breaks;

Such is the dance this wretched race must lead,

Whom more than elsewhere numerous here I found.

From one side and the other, with loud voice,

Both roll'd on weights, by main force of their breasts,

Then smote together, and each one forthwith

Roll'd them back voluble, turning again;

Exclaiming these, "Why holdest thou so fast?"

Those answering, "And why castest thou away?"

So, still repeating their despiteful song,

They to the opposite point, on either hand,

Traversed the horrid circle; then arrived,

Both turn'd them round, and through the middle space,

Conflicting met again. At sight whereof

I, stung with grief, thus spake: "O say, my guide!

What race is this. Were these, whose heads are shorn,

On our left hand, all separate to the Church?"

He straight replied: "In their first life, these all

In mind were so distorted, that they made,

According to due measure, of their wealth

No use. This clearly from their words collect,

Which they howl forth, at each extremity

Arriving of the circle, where their crime

Contrary in kind disparts them. To the Church

Were separate those, that with no hairy cowls

Are crowned, both Popes and Cardinals, o'er whom

Avarice dominion absolute maintains."

I then: "'Mid such as these some needs must be,

Whom I shall recognize, that with the blot

Of these foul sins were stain'd." He answering thus:

"Vain thought conceivest thou. That ignoble life,

Which made them vile before, now makes them dark,

And to all knowledge indiscernible.

For ever they shall meet in this rude shock:

These from the tomb with clenched grasp shall rise,

Those with close - shaven locks. That ill they gave,

And ill they kept, hath of the beauteous world

Deprived, and set them at this strife, which needs

No labor'd phrase of mine to set it off.

Now mayst thou see, my son! how brief, how vain,

The goods committed into Fortune's hands,

For which the human race keep such a coil!

Not all the gold that is beneath the moon,

Or ever hath been, of these toil - worn souls

Might purchase rest for one." I thus rejoin'd:

"My guide! of these this also would I learn;

This Fortune, that thou speak'st of, what it is,

Whose talons grasp the blessings of the world."

He thus: "O beings blind! what ignorance

Besets you! Now my judgment hear and mark.

He, whose transcendent wisdom passes all,

The heavens creating, gave them ruling powers

To guide them; so that each part shines to each,

Their light in equal distribution pour'd.

By similar appointment he ordain'd,

Over the world's bright images to rule,

Superintendence of a guiding hand

And general minister, which, at due time,

May change the empty vantages of life

From race to race, from one to other's blood,

Beyond prevention of man's wisest care:

Wherefore one nation rises into sway,

Another languishes, e'en as her will

Decrees, from us conceal'd, as in the grass

The serpent train. Against her nought avails

Your utmost wisdom. She with foresight plans,

Judges, and carries on her reign, as theirs

The other powers divine. Her changes know

None intermission: by necessity

She is made swift, so frequent come who claim

Succession in her favors. This is she,

So execrated e'en by those whose debt

To her is rather praise: they wrongfully

With blame requite her, and with evil word;

But she is blessed, and for that recks not:

Amidst the other primal beings glad

Rolls on her sphere, and in her bliss exults.

Now on our way pass we, to heavier woe

Descending: for each star is falling now,

That mounted at our entrance, and forbids

Too long our tarrying." We the circle cross'd

To the next steep, arriving at a well,

That boiling pours itself down to a foss

Sluiced from its source. Far murkier was the wave

Than sablest grain: and we in company

Of the inky waters, journeying by their side,

Enter'd, though by a different track, beneath.

Into a lake, the Stygian named, expands

The dismal stream, when it hath reach'd the foot

Of the gray wither'd cliffs. Intent I stood

To gaze, and in the marish sunk descried

A miry tribe, all naked, and with looks

Betokening rage. They with their hands alone

Struck not, but with the head, the breast, the feet,

Cutting each other piecemeal with their fangs.

The good instructor spake: "Now seest thou, son!

The souls of those, whom anger overcame.

This too for certain know, that underneath

The water dwells a multitude, whose sighs

Into these bubbles make the surface heave,

As thine eye tells thee wheresoe'er it turn.

Fix'd in the slime, they say: 'Sad once were we,

In the sweet air made gladsome by the sun,

Carrying a foul and lazy mist within:

Now in these murky settlings are we sad.'

Such dolorous strain they gurgle in their throats,

But word distinct can utter none." Our route

Thus compass'd we, a segment widely stretch'd

Between the dry embankment, and the core

Of the loath'd pool, turning meanwhile our eyes

Downward on those who gulp'd its muddy lees;

Nor stopp'd, till to a tower's low base we came.

[Footnote 1: "Pape Satan, Pape Satan, aleppe;" words without meaning.]

Canto VIII

Argument And Canto VIII

     A signal having been made from the tower, Phlegyas, the ferryman of the

lake, speedily crosses it, and conveys Virgil and Dante to the other side. On

their passage, they meet with Filippo Argenti, whose fury and torment are

described. They then arrive at the city of Dis, the entrance whereto is

denied, and the portals closed against them by many Demons.

My theme pursuing, I relate, that ere

We reach'd the lofty turret's base, our eyes

Its height ascended, where we mark'd uphung

Two cressets, and another saw from far

Return the signal, so remote, that scarce

The eye could catch its beam. I, turning round

To the deep source of knowledge, thus inquired:

"Say what this means; and what, that other light

In answer set: what agency doth this?"

"There on the filthy waters," he replied,

"E'en now what next awaits us mayst thou see,

If the marsh - gendered fog conceal it not."

Never was arrow from the cord dismiss'd,

That ran its way so nimbly through the air,

As a small bark, that through the waves I spied

Toward us coming, under the sole sway

Of one that ferried it, who cried aloud:

"Art thou arrived, fell spirit?" - "Phlegyas, Phlegyas,^1

This time thou criest in vain," my lord replied;

"No longer shalt thou have us, but while o'er

The slimy pool we pass." As one who hears

Of some great wrong he hath sustain'd, whereat

Inly he pines: so Phlegyas inly pined

In his fierce ire. My guide, descending, stepp'd

Into the skiff, and bade me enter next,

Close at his side; nor, till my entrance, seem'd

The vessel freighted. Soon as both embark'd,

Cutting the waves, goes on the ancient prow,

More deeply than with others it is wont.

While we our course o'er the dead channel held,

One drench'd in mire before me came, and said:

"Who art thou, that thus comest ere thine hour?"

I answer'd: "Though I come, I tarry not:

But who art thou, that art become so foul?"

"One, as thou seest, who mourn:" he straight replied.

To which I thus: "In mourning and in woe,

Curst spirit! tarry thou. I know thee well,

E'en thus in filth disguised." Then stretch'd he forth

Hands to the bark; whereof my teacher sage

Aware, thrusting him back: "Away! down there

To the other dogs!" then, with his arms my neck

Encircling, kiss'd my cheek, and spake: "O soul,

Justly disdainful! blest was she in whom

Thou wast conceived. He in the world was one

For arrogance noted: to his memory

No virtue lends its lustre; even so

Here is his shadow furious. There above,

How many now hold themselves mighty kings,

Who here like swine shall wallow in the mire,

Leaving behind them horrible dispraise."

I then: "Master! him fain would I behold

Whelm'd in these dregs, before we quit the lake."

He thus: "Or ever to thy view the shore

Be offer'd, satisfied shall be that wish,

Which well deserves completion." Scarce his words

Were ended, when I saw the miry tribes

Set on him with such violence, that yet

For that render I thanks to God, and praise.

"To Filippo Argenti!"^2 cried they all:

And on himself the moody Florentine

Turn'd his avenging fangs. Him here we left,

Nor speak I of him more. But on mine ear

Sudden a sound of lamentation smote,

Whereat mine eye unbarr'd I sent abroad.

And thus the good instructor: "Now, my son

Draws near the city, that of Dis is named,

With its grave denizens, a mighty throng."

I thus: "The minarets already, Sir!

There, certes, in the valley I descry,

Gleaming vermilion, as if they from fire

Had issued." He replied: "Eternal fire,

That inward burns, shows them with ruddy flame

Illumed; as in this nether Hell thou seest."

We came within the fosses deep, that moat

This region comfortless. The walls appear'd

As they were framed of iron. We had made

Wide circuit, ere a place we reach'd, where loud

The mariner cried vehement: "Go forth:

The entrance is here." Upon the gates I spied

More than a thousand, who of old from Heaven

Were shower'd. With ireful gestures, "Who is this,"

They cried, "that, without death first felt, goes through

The regions of the dead?" My sapient guide

Made sign that he for secret parley wish'd;

Whereat their angry scorn abating, thus

They spake: "Come thou alone; and let him go,

Who hath so hardily enter'd this realm.

Alone return he by his witless way;

If well he knew it, let him prove. For thee,

Here shalt thou tarry, who through clime so dark

Hast been his escort." Now bethink thee, reader!

What cheer was mine at sound of those curst words.

I did believe I never should return.

"O my loved guide! who more than seven times^3

Security hast render'd me, and drawn

From peril deep, whereto I stood exposed,

Desert me not," I cried, "in this extreme.

And, if our onward going be denied,

Together trace we back our steps with speed."

My liege, who thither had conducted me,

Replied: "Fear not: for of our passage none

Hath power to disappoint us, by such high

Authority permitted. But do thou

Expect me here; meanwhile, thy wearied spirit

Comfort, and feed with kindly hope, assured

I will not leave thee in this lower world."

This said, departs the sire benevolent,

And quits me. Hesitating I remain

At war, 'twixt will and will not, in my thoughts.

I could not hear what terms he offer'd them,

But they conferr'd not long, for all at once

Pellmell rush'd back within. Closed were the gates,

By those our adversaries, on the breast

Of my liege lord: excluded, he return'd

To me with tardy steps. Upon the ground

His eyes were bent, and from his brow erased

All confidence, while thus in sighs he spake:

"Who hath denied me these abodes of woe?"

Then thus to me: "That I am anger'd, think

No ground of terror: in this trial I

Shall vanquish, use what arts they may within

For hindrance. This their insolence, not new,^4

Erewhile at gate less secret they display'd,

Which still is without bolt; upon its arch

Thou saw'st the deadly scroll: and even now,

On this side of its entrance, down the steep,

Passing the circles, unescorted, comes

One whose strong might can open us this land."

[Footnote 1: Phlegyas, so incensed against Apollo for having violated his

daughter Coronis, that he set fire to the temple of that deity, by whose

vengeance he was cast into Tartarus. See Virgil, Aeneas, 1. vi. 618.]

[Footnote 2: Boccaccio tells us, "he was a man remarkable for the large

proportions and extraordinary vigor of his bodily frame, and the extreme

waywardness and irascibility of his temper." - "Decameron," G. ix. N. 8.]

[Footnote 3: Seven times." The commentators, says Venturi, perplex themselves

with the inquiry what seven perils these were from which Dante had been

delivered by Virgil. Reckoning the beasts in the first Canto as one of them,

and adding Charon, Minos, Cerberus, Plutus, Phlegyas, and Filippo Argenti, as

so many others, we shall have the number; and if this be not satisfactory, we

may suppose a determinate to have been put for an indeterminate number.]

[Footnote 4: Virgil assures our poet that these evil spirits had formerly

shown the same insolence when our Saviour descended into hell. They attempted

to prevent him from entering at the gate, over which Dante had read the fatal

inscription. "That gate which," says the Roman poet, "an angel had just

passed, by whose aid we shall overcome this opposition, and gain admittance

into the city."]

Canto IX


     After some hindrances, and having seen the hellish furies and other

monsters, the Poet, by the help of an angel, enters the city of Dis, wherein

he discovers that the heretics are punished in tombs burning with intense

fire; and he, together with Virgil, passes onward between the sepulchres and

the walls of the city.

The hue,^1 which coward dread on my pale cheeks

Imprinted when I saw my guide turn back,

Chased that from his which newly they had worn,

And inwardly restrain'd it. He, as one

Who listens, stood attentive: for his eye

Not far could lead him through the sable air,

And the thick - gathering cloud. "It yet behoves

We win this fight;" thus he began: "if not,

Such aid to us is offer'd - Oh! how long

Me seems it, ere the promised help arrive."

I noted, how the sequel of his words

Cloked their beginning; for the last he spake

Agreed not with the first. But not the less

My fear was at his saying; sith I drew

To import worse, perchance, than that he held,

His mutilated speech. "Doth ever any

Into this rueful concave's extreme depth

Descend, out of the first degree, whose pain

Is deprivation merely of sweet hope?"

Thus I inquiring. "Rarely," he replied,

"It chances, that among us any makes

This journey, which I wend. Erewhile, 'tis true,

Once came I here beneath, conjured by fell

Erichtho,^2 sorceress, who compell'd the shades

Back to their bodies. No long space my flesh

Was naked of me, when within these walls

She made me enter, to draw forth a spirit

From out of Judas' circle. Lowest place

Is that of all, obscurest, and removed

Farthest from Heaven's all - circling orb. The road

Full well I know: thou therefore rest secure.

That lake, the noisome stench exhaling, round

The city of grief encompasses, which now

We may not enter without rage, "Yet more

He added: but I hold it not in mind,

For that mine eye toward the lofty tower

Had drawn me wholly, to its burning top;

Where, in an instant, I beheld uprisen

At once three hellish furies stain'd with blood.

In limb and motion feminine they seem'd;

Around them greenest hydras twisting roll'd

Their volumes; adders and cerastes crept

Instead of hair, and their fierce temples bound.

He, knowing well the miserable hags

Who tend the queen of endless owe, thus spake:

"Mark thou each dire Erynnis. To the left,

This is Megaera; on the right hand, she

Who wails, Alecto; and Tisiphone

I'th' midst." This said, in silence he remain'd.

Their breast they each one clawing tore; themselves

Smote with their palms, and such thrill clamour raised,

That to the bard I clung, suspicion - bound.

"Hasten Medusa: so to adamant

Him shall we change;" all looking down exclaim'd:

"E'en when by Theseus' might assail'd, we took

No ill revenge." "Turn thyself round and keep

Thy countenance hid; for if the Gorgon dire

Be shown, and thou shouldst view it, thy return

Upwards would be forever lost." This said,

Himself, my gentle master, turn'd me round;

Nor trusted he my hands, but with his own

He also hid me. Ye of intellect

Sound and entire, mark well the lore^3 conceal'd

Under close texture of the mystic strain.

And now there came o'er the perturbed waves

Loud - crashing, terrible, a sound that made

Either shore tremble, as if of a wind

Impetuous, from conflicting vapors sprung,

That 'gainst some forest driving all his might,

Plucks off the branches, beats them down, and hurls

Afar; then, onward passing, proudly sweeps

His whirlwind rage, while beasts and shepherds fly.

Mine eyes he loosed, and spake: "And now direct

Thy visual nerve along that ancient foam,

There, thickest where the smoke ascends." As frogs

Before their foe the serpent, through the wave

Ply swiftly all, till at the ground each one

Lies on a heap; more than a thousand spirits

Destroy'd, so saw I fleeing before one

Who pass'd with unwet feet the Stygian sound.

He, from his face removing the gross air,

Oft his left hand forth stretch'd, and seem'd alone

By that annoyance wearied. I perceived

That he was sent from Heaven; and to my guide

Turn'd me, who signal made, that I should stand

Quiet, and bend to him. Ah me! how full

Of noble anger seem'd he. To the gate

He came, and with his wand touch'd it, whereat

Open without impediment it flew.

"Outcasts of heaven! O abject race, scorn'd!"

Began he, on the horrid grunsel standing,

"Whence doth this wild excess of insolence

Lodge in you? wherefore kick you 'gainst that will

Ne'er frustrate of its end, and which so oft

Hath laid on you enforcement of your pangs?

What profits at the Fates to butt the horn?

Your Cerberus,^4 if ye remember, hence

Bears still, peel'd of their hair, his throat and maw."

This said, he turn'd back o'er the filthy way,

And syllable to us spake none; but wore

The semblance of a man by other care

Beset, and keenly prest, than thought of him

Who in his presence stands. Then we our steps

Toward that territory moved, secure

After the hallow'd words. We, unopposed,

There enter'd; and, my mind eager to learn

What state a fortress like to that might hold,

I, soon as enter'd, throw mine eye around,

And see, on every part, wide - stretching space,

Replete with bitter pain and torment ill.

As where Rhone stagnates on the plains of Arles,^5

Or as at Pola,^6 near Quarnaro's gulf,

That closes Italy and laves her bounds,

The place is all thick spread with sepulchres;

So was it here, save what in horror here

Excell'd: for 'midst the graves were scattered flames,

Wherewith intensely all throughout they burn'd,

That iron for no craft there hotter needs.

Their lids all hung suspended; and beneath,

From them forth issued lamentable moans,

Such as the sad and tortured well might raise.

I thus: "Master! say who are these, interr'd

Within these vaults, of whom distinct we hear

The dolorous sighs." He answer thus return'd:

"The arch - heretics are here, accompanied

By every sect their followers; and much more

Than thou believest, the tombs are freighted: like

With like is buried; and the monuments

Are different in degrees of heat." This said,

He to the right hand turning, on we pass'd

Betwixt the afflicted and the ramparts high.

[Footnote 1: "The hue," Virgil, perceiving that Dante was pale with fear,

restrained those outward tokens of displeasure which his own countenance had


[Footnote 2: Erichtho, a Thessalian sorceress (Lucan, "Pharsal." 1. vi.), was

employed by Sextus, son of Pompey the Great, to conjure up a spirit, who

should inform him of the issue of the civil wars between his father and


[Footnote 3: The Poet probably intends to call the reader's attention to the

allegorical and mystic sense of the present Canto, and not, as Venturi

supposes, to that of the whole work. Landino supposes this hidden meaning to

be that in the case of those vices which proceed from intemperance, reason,

figured under the person of Virgil, with the ordinary grace of God, may be a

sufficient safeguard; but that in the instance of more heinous crimes, such as

those we shall hereafter see punished, a special grace, represented by the

angel, is requisite for our defence.]

[Footnote 4: "Your Cerberus." Cerberus is feigned to have been dragged by

Hercules, bound with a threefold chain, of which, says the angel, he still

bears the marks. Lombardi blames the other interpreters for having supposed

that the angel attributes this exploit to Hercules, a fabulous hero, rather

than to our Saviour, It would seem as if the good father had forgotten that

Cerberus is himself no less a creature of the imagination than the hero who

encountered him.]

[Footnote 5: "The plains of Arles." In Provence. These sepulchres are

mentioned in the Life of Charlemagne, which has been attributed to Archbishop

Turpin, cap. 28, and 30, and by Fazio degli Uberti, Dittamondo, L. iv. cap.


[Footnote 6: "At Pola." A city of Istria, situated near the gulf of Quarnaro,

in the Adriatic Sea.]

Canto X


     Dante, having obtained permission from his guide, holds discourse with

Farinata degli Uberti and Cavalcante Cavalcanti, who lie in their fiery tombs

that are yet open, and not to be closed up till after the last judgment.

Farinata predicts the Poet's exile from Florence; and shows him that the

condemned have knowledge of future things, but are ignorant of what is at

present passing, unless it be revealed by some newcomer from earth.

Now by a secret pathway we proceed,

Between the walls, that hem the region round,

And the tormented souls: my master first,

I close behind his steps. "Virtue supreme!"

I thus began: "Who through these ample orbs

In circuit lead'st me, even as thou will'st;

Speak thou, and satisfy my wish. May those,

Who lie within these sepulchres, be seen?

Already all the lids are raised, and none

O'er them keeps watch." He thus in answer spake:

"They shall be closed all, what - time they here

From Josaphat^1 return'd shall come, and bring

Their bodies, which above they now have left.

The cemetery on this part obtain,

With Epicurus, all his followers,

Who with the body make the spirit die.

Here therefore satisfaction shall be soon,

Both to the question ask'd, and to the wish^2

Which thou conceal'st in silence." I replied:

"I keep not, guide beloved! from thee my heart

Secreted, but to shun vain length of words;

A lesson erewhile taught me by thyself."

"O Tuscan! thou, who through the city of fire

Alive art passing, so discreet of speech:

Here, please thee, stay awhile. Thy utterance

Declares the place of thy nativity

To be that noble land, with which perchance

I too severely dealt." Sudden that sound

Forth issued from a vault, whereat, in fear,

I somewhat closer to my leader's side

Approaching, he thus spake: "What dost thou? Turn:

Lo! Farinata^3 there, who hath himself

Uplifted: from his girdle upwards, all

Exposed, behold him." On his face was mine

Already fix'd: his breast and forehead there

Erecting, seem'd as in high scorn he held

E'en Hell. Between the sepulchres, to him

My guide thrust me, with fearless hands and prompt;

This warning added: "See thy words be clear."

He, soon as there I stood at the tomb's foot,

Eyed me a space; then in disdainful mood

Address'd me: "Say what ancestors were thine."

I, willing to obey him, straight reveal'd

The whole, nor kept back aught: whence he, his brow

Somewhat uplifting, cried: "Fiercely were they

Adverse to me, my party, and the blood

From whence I sprang: twice,^4 therefore, I abroad

Scatter'd them." "Though driven out, yet they each time

From all parts," answer'd I, "return'd; an art

Which yours have shown they are not skill'd to learn."

Then, peering forth from the unclosed jaw,

Rose from his side a shade,^5 high as the chin,

Leaning, methought, upon its knees upraised.

It look'd around, as eager to explore

If there were other with me; but perceiving

That fond imagination quench'd, with tears

Thus spake: "If thou through this blind prison go'st,

Led by thy lofty genius and profound,

Where is my son?^6 and wherefore not with thee?"

I straight replied: "Not of myself I come;

By him, who there expects me, through this clime

Conducted, whom perchance Guido thy son

Had in contempt."^7 Already had his words

And mode of punishment read me his name,

Whence I so fully answer'd. He at once

Exclaim'd, up starting, "How! said'st thou, he had?

No longer lives he? Strikes not on his eye

The blessed daylight?" Then, of some delay

I made ere my reply, aware, down fell

Supine, nor after forth appear'd he more.

Meanwhile the other, great of soul, near whom

I yet was station'd, changed not countenance stern,

Nor moved the neck, nor bent his ribbed side.

"And if," continuing the first discourse,

"They in this art," he cried, "small skill have shown;

That doth torment me more e'en than this bed.

But not yet fifty times^8 shall be relumed

Her aspect, who reigns here queen of this realm,^9

Ere thou shalt know the full weight of that art.

So to the pleasant world mayst thou return,

As thou shalt tell me why, in all their laws,

Against my kin this people is so fell."

"The slaughter^10 and great havoc," I replied,

"That color'd Arbia's flood with crimson stain -

To these impute, that in our hallow'd dome

Such orisons^11 ascend." Sighing he shook

The head, then thus resumed: "In that affray

I stood not singly, nor, without just cause,

Assuredly, should with the rest have stirr'd;

But singly there I stood,^12 when, by consent

Of all, Florence had to the ground been razed,

The one who openly forbade the deed."

"So may thy lineage find at last repose,"

I thus adjured him, "as thou solve this knot,

Which now involves my mind. If right I hear,

Ye seem to view beforehand that which time

Leads with him, of the present uninform'd."

"We view, as one who hath an evil sight,"

He answer'd, "plainly, objects far remote;

So much of his large splendor yet imparts

The Almighty Ruler: but when they approach,

Or actually exist, our intellect

Then wholly fails; nor of your human state,

Except what others bring us, know we aught.

Hence therefore mayst thou understand, that all

Our knowledge in that instant shall expire,

When on futurity the portals close."

Then conscious of my fault,^13 and by remorse

Smitten, I added thus: "Now shalt thou say

To him there fallen, that his offspring still

Is to the living join'd; and bid him know,

That if from answer, silent, I abstain'd,

'Twas that my thought was occupied, intent

Upon that error, which thy help hath solved."

But now my master summoning me back

I heard, and with more eager haste besought

The spirit to inform me, who with him

Partook his lot. He answer thus return'd:

"More than a thousand with me here are laid.

Within is Frederick,^14 second of that name,

And the Lord Cardinal,^15 and of the rest

I speak not." He, this said, from sight withdrew.

But I my steps toward the ancient bard

Reverting, remunated on the words

Betokening me such ill. Onward he moved,

And thus, in going, question'd: "Whence the amaze

That holds thy senses wrapt?" I satisfied

The inquiry, and the sage enjoin'd me straight:

"Let thy safe memory store what thou hast heard,

To thee importing harm; and note thou this,"

With his raised finger bidding me take heed,

"When thou shalt stand before her gracious beam,^16

Whose bright eye all surveys, she of thy life

The future tenor will to thee unfold."

Forthwith he to the left hand turn'd his feet:

We left the wall, and toward the middle space

Went by a path that to a valley strikes,

Which e'en thus high exhaled its noisome steam.

[Footnote 1: "Josaphat." It seems to have been a common opinion among the

Jews, as well as among many Christians, that the general judgment will be held

in the valley of Josaphat, or Jehoshaphat. "I will also gather all nations,

and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with

them there for my people, and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered

among the nations, and parted my land." - Joel, iii. 2.]

[Footnote 2: "The wish." The wish that Dante had not expressed was to see and

converse with the followers of Epicurus; among whom, we shall see, were

Farinata degli Uberti and Cavalcante Cavalcanti.]

[Footnote 3: "Farinata." Farinata degli Uberti, a noble Florentine, was the

leader of the Ghibelline faction, when they obtained a signal victory over the

Guelfi at Montaperto, near the river Arbia. Macchiavelli calls him "a man of

exalted soul, and great military talents." - "Hist. of Flor." b. ii. His

grandson, Bonifacio, commonly called Fazio degli Uberti, wrote a poem,

entitled the "Dittamonodo," in imitation of Dante.]

[Footnote 4: "Twice." The first time in 1248, when they were driven out by

Frederick the Second. See G. Villani, lib. vi. c. xxxiv.; and the second time

in 1260. See note to v. 83.]

[Footnote 5: "A shade." The spirit of Cavalcante Cavalcanti, a noble

Florentine, of the Guelf party.]

[Footnote 6: "My son." Guido, the son of Cavalcante Cavalcanti; "he whom I

call the first of my friends," says Dante in his "Vita Nuova" where the

commencement of their friendship is related. From the character given of him

by contemporary writers, his temper was well formed to assimilate with that of

our Poet. "He was," according to G. Villani, lib. viii. c. xli., "of a

philosophical and elegant mind, if he had not been too delicate and


[Footnote 7: "_____ Guido they soon Had in contempt." Guido Cavalcanti, being

more given to philosophy than poetry, was perhaps no great admirer of Virgil.]

[Footnote 8: "Not yet fifty times." "Not fifty months shall be passed, before

thou shalt learn, by woeful experience, the difficulty of returning from

banishment to thy native city."]

[Footnote 9: "Queen of this realm." The moon, one of whose titles in heathen

mythology was Proserpine, queen of the shades below.]

[Footnote 10: "The slaughter." "By means of Farinata degli Uberti, the Guelfi

were conquered by the army of King Manfredi, near the river Arbia, with so

great a slaughter, that those who escaped from that defeat took refuge, not in

Florence, which city they considered as lost to them, but in Lucca." -

Macchiavelli, "Hist. of Flor." b. ii. and G. Villani, lib. vi. c. lxxx. and


[Footnote 11: "Such orisons." This appears to allude to certain prayers which

were offered up in the churches of Florence, for deliverance from the hostile

attempts of the Uberti; or, it may be that the public councils being held in

churches, the speeches delivered in them against the Uberti are termed

"orisons," or prayers.]

[Footnote 12: "Singly there I stood." Guido Novello assembled a council of the

Ghibellini at Empoli; where it was agreed by all, that, in order to maintain

the ascendancy of the Ghibelline party in Tuscany, it was necessary to destroy

Florence, which could serve only (the people of that city being Guelfi) to

enable the party attached to the church to recover its strength. This cruel

sentence, passed upon so noble a city, met with no opposition from any of its

citizens or friends, except Farinata degli Uberti, who openly and without

reserve forbade the measure; affirming, that he had endured so many hardships,

with no other view than that of being able to pass his days in his own

country. Macchiavelli, Hist. of Flor. b. ii.]

[Footnote 13: "My fault." Dante felt remorse for not having returned an

immediate answer to the inquiry of Cavalcante, from which delay he was led to

believe that his son Guido was no longer living.]

[Footnote 14: "Frederick." The Emperor Frederick II., who died in 1250. See

notes to Canto xiii.]

[Footnote 15: "The Lord Cardinal." Ottaviano Ubaldini, a Florentine, made

cardinal in 1245, and deceased about 1273. On account of his great influence,

he was generally known by the appellation of "the Cardinal." It is reported of

him that he declared if there were any such thing as a human soul he had lost

his for the Ghibellini.]

[Footnote 16: "Her gracious beam." Beatrice.]

Canto XI


     Dante arrives at the verge of a rocky precipice which encloses the

seventh circle, where he sees the sepulchre of Anastasius the Heretic; behind

the lid of which pausing a little, to make himself capable by degrees of

enduring the fetid smell that steamed upward from the abyss, he is instructed

by Virgil concerning the manner in which the three following circles are

disposed, and what description of sinners is punished in each. He then

inquires the reason why the carnal, the gluttonous, the avaricious and

prodigal, the wrathful and gloomy, suffer not their punishments within the

city of Dis. He next asks how the crime of usury is an offence against God;

and at length the two Poets go toward the place from whence a passage leads

down to the seventh circle.

Upon the utmost verge of a high bank,

By craggy rocks environ'd round, we came.

Where woes beneath, more cruel yet, were stow'd:

And here, to shun the horrible excess

Of fetid exhalation upward cast

From the profound abyss, behind the lid

Of a great monument we stood retired,

Whereon this scroll I mark'd: "I have in charge

Pope Anastasius,^1 whom Photinus drew

From the right path." "Ere our descent, behoves

We make delay, that somewhat first the sense,

To the dire breath accustom'd, afterward

Regard it not." My master thus; to whom

Answering I spake: "Some compensation find,

That the time pass not wholly lost." He then:

"Lo! how my thoughts e'en to thy wishes tend.

My son! within these rocks," he thus began,

"Are three close circles in gradation placed,

As these which now thou leavest. Each one is full

Of spirits accurst; but that the sight alone

Hereafter may suffice thee, listen how

And for what cause in durance they abide.

"Of all malicious act abhorr'd in Heaven,

The end is injury; and all such end

Either by force or fraud works other's woe.

But fraud, because of man's peculiar evil,

To God is more displeasing; and beneath,

The fraudulent are therefore doom'd to endure

Severer pang. The violent occupy

All the first circle; and because, to force,

Three persons are obnoxious, in three rounds,

Each within other separate, is it framed.

To God, his neighbor, and himself, by man

Force may be offer'd; to himself I say,

And his possessions, as thou soon shalt hear

At full. Death, violent death, and painful wounds

Upon his neighbor he inflicts; and wastes,

By devastation, pillage, and the flames,

His substance. Slayers, and each one that smites

In malice, plunderers, and all robbers, hence

The torment undergo of the first round,

In different herds. Man can do violence

To himself and his own blessings: and for this,

He, in the second round must aye deplore

With unavailing penitence his crime,

Whoe'er deprives himself of life and light,

In reckless lavishment his talent wastes,

And sorrows there where he should dwell in joy.

To God may force be offer'd, in the heart

Denying and blaspheming His high power,

And Nature with her kindly law contemning.

And thence the inmost round marks with its seal

Sodom, and Cahors, and all such as speak

Contemptuously of the Godhead in their hearts.

"Fraud, that in every conscience leaves a sting,

May be by man employ'd on one, whose trust

He wins, or on another, who withholds

Strict confidence. Seems as the latter way

Broke but the bond of love which Nature makes.

Whence in the second circle have their nest,

Dissimulation, witchcraft, flatteries,

Theft, falsehood, simony, all who seduce

To lust, or set their honesty at pawn,

With such vile scum as these. The other way

Forgets both Nature's general love, and that

Which thereto added afterward gives birth

To special faith. Whence in the lesser circle,

Point of the universe, dread seat of Dis,

The traitor is eternally consumed."

I thus: "Instructor, clearly thy discourse

Proceeds, distinguishing the hideous chasm

And its inhabitants with skill exact.

But tell me this: they of the dull, fat pool,

Whom the rain beats, or whom the tempest drives,

Or who with tongues so fierce conflicting meet,

Wherefore within the city fire - illumed

Are not these punish'd, if God's wrath be on them?

And if it be not, wherefore in such guise

Are they condemn'd?" He answer thus return'd:

"Wherefore in dotage wanders thus thy mind,

Not so accustom'd? or what other thoughts

Possess it? Dwell not in thy memory

The words, wherein thy ethic page^2 describes

Three dispositions adverse to Heaven's will,

Incontinence, malice, and mad brutishness,

And how incontinence the least offends

God, and least guilt incurs? If well thou note

This judgment, and remember who they are,

Without these walls to vain repentance doom'd,

Thou shalt discern why they apart are placed

From these fell spirits, and less wreakful pours

Justice divine on them its vengeance down."

"O sun! who healest all imperfect sight,

Thou so content'st me, when thou solvest my doubt,

That ignorance not less than knowledge charms.

Yet somewhat turn thee back," I in these words

Continued," where thou said'st, that usury

Offends celestial Goodness; and this knot

Perplex'd unravel." He thus made reply:

"Philosophy, to an attentive ear,

Clearly points out, not in one part alone,

How imitative Nature takes her course

From the celestial mind, and from its art:

And where her laws^3 the Stagirite unfolds,

Not many leaves scann'd o'er, observing well

Thou shalt discover, that your art on her

Obsequious follows, as the learner treads

In his instructor's step; so that your art

Deserves the name of second in descent

From God. These two, if thou recall to mind

Creation's holy book,^4 from the beginning

Were the right source of life and excellence

To human - kind. But in another path

The usurer walks; and Nature in herself

And in her follower thus he sets at nought,

Placing elsewhere his hope.^5 But follow now

My steps on forward journey bent; for now

The Pisces play with undulating glance

Along the horizon, and the Wain^6 lies all

O'er the northwest; and onward there a space

Is our steep passage down the rocky height."

[Footnote 1: By some supposed to have been Anastasius II.; by others, the

fourth of that name; while a third set, jealous of the integrity of the papal

faith, contend that our poet has confounded him with Anastasius I., Emperor of

the East.]

[Footnote 2: "Thy ethic page." He refers to Aristotle's Ethics, lib. vii. c.

1: "_____ let it be defined that respecting morals there are three sorts of

things to be avoided, malice, incontinence, and brutishness."]

[Footnote 3: "Her laws." Aristotle's Physics, lib. ii. c. 2: "Art imitates


[Footnote 4: "Creation's holy book." Genesis, c. ii. v. 15: "And the Lord God

took the man, and put him into the Garden of Eden, to dress it, and to keep

it." And, Genesis, c. iii. v. 19: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat


[Footnote 5: "Placing elsewhere his hope." The usurer, trusting in the produce

of his wealth lent out on usury, despises nature directly, because he does not

avail himself of her means for maintaining or enriching himself; and

indirectly, because he does not avail himself of the means which art, the

follower and imitator of nature, would afford him for the same purposes.]

[Footnote 6: "The Wain." The constellation Bootes, or Charles' Wain.]

Canto XII


     Descending by a very rugged way into the seventh circle, where the

violent are punished, Dante and his leader find it guarded by the Minotaur;

whose fury being pacified by Virgil, they step downward from crag to crag;

till, drawing near the bottom, they descry a river of blood, wherein are

tormented such as have committed violence against their neighbor. At these,

when they strive to emerge from the blood, a troop of Centaurs, running along

the side of the river, aim their arrows; and three of their band opposing our

travellers at the foot of the steep, Virgil prevails so far that one consents

to carry them both across the stream; and on their passage, Dante is informed

by him of the course of the river, and of those that are punished therein.

The place, where to descend the precipice

We came, was rough as Alp; and on its verge

Such object lay, as every eye would shun.

As is that ruin, which Adice's stream^1

On this side Trento struck, shouldering the wave,

Or loosed by earthquake or for lack of prop;

For from the mountain's summit, whence it moved

To the low level, so the headlong rock

Is shiver'd, that some passage it might give

To him who from above would pass; e'en such

Into the chasm was that descent: and there

At point of the disparted ridge lay stretch'd

The infamy of Crete,^2 detested brood

Of the feign'd heifer:^3 and at sight of us

It gnaw'd itself, as one with rage distract.

To him my guide exclaim'd: "Perchance thou deem'st

The King of Athens^4 here, who, in the world

Above, thy death contrived. Monster! avaunt!

He comes not tutor'd by thy sister's art,^5

But to behold your torments is he come."

Like to a bull, that with impetuous spring

Darts, at the moment when the fatal blow

Hath struck him, but unable to proceed

Plunges on either side; so saw I plunge

The Minotaur; whereat the sage exclaim'd:

"Run to the passage! while he storms, 'tis well

That thou descend." Thus down our road we took

Through those dilapidated crags, that oft

Moved underneath my feet, to weight like theirs

Unused. I pondering went, and thus he spake:

"Perhaps thy thoughts are of this ruin'd steep,

Guarded by the brute violence, which I

Have vanguish'd now. Know then, that when I erst

Hither descended to the nether Hell,

This rock was not yet fallen. But past doubt,

(If well I mark) not long ere He arrived,^6

Who carried off from Dis the mighty spoil

Of the highest circle, then through all its bounds

Such trembling seized the deep concave and foul,

I thought the universe was thrill'd with love,

Whereby, there are who deem, the world hath oft

Been into chaos turn'd: and in that point,

Here, and elsewhere, that old rock toppled down.

But fix thine eyes beneath: the river of blood

Approaches, in the which all those are steep'd,

Who have by violence injured." O blind lust!

O foolish wrath! who so dost goad us on

In the brief like, and in the eternal then

Thus miserably o'erwhelm us. I beheld

An ample foss, that in a bow was bent,

As circling all the plain; for so my guide

Had told. Between it and the rampart's base,

On trail ran Centaurs, with keen arrows arm'd,

As to the chase they on the earth were wont.

At seeing us descend they each one stood;

And issuing from the troop, three sped with bows

And missile weapons chosen first; of whom

One cried from far: "Say, to what pain ye come

Condemn'd, who down this steep have journey'd. Speak

From whence ye stand, or else the bow I draw."

To whom my guide: "Our answer shall be made

To Chiron, there, when nearer him we come.

Ill was thy mind, thus ever quick and rash."

Then me he touch'd and spake: "Nessus is this,

Who for the fair Deianira died,

And wrought himself revenge^7 for his own fate.

He in the midst, that on his breast looks down,

Is the great Chiron who Achilles nursed;

That other, Pholus, prone to wrath." Around

The foss these go by thousands, aiming shafts

At whatsoever spirit dares emerge

From out the blood, more than his guilt allows.

We to those beasts, that rapid strode along,

Drew near; when Chiron took an arrow forth,

And with the notch push'd back his shaggy beard

To the cheek - bone, then, his great mouth to view

Exposing, to his fellows thus exclaim'd:

"Are ye aware, that he who comes behind

Moves what he touches? The feet of the dead

Are not so wont." My trusty guide, who now

Stood near his breast, where the two natures join,

Thus made reply: "He is indeed alive,

And solitary so must needs by me

Be shown the gloomy vale, thereto induced

By strict necessity, not by delight.

She left her joyful harpings in the sky,

Who this new office to my care consign'd.

He is no robber, no dark spirit I.

But by that virtue, which empowers my step

To tread so wild a path, grant us, I pray,

One of thy band, whom we may trust secure,

Who to the ford may lead us, and convey

Across, him mounted on his back; for he

Is not a spirit that may walk the air."

Then on his right breast turning, Chiron thus

To Nessus spake: "Return, and be their guide.

And if ye chance to cross another troop,

Command them keep aloof." Onward we moved,

The faithful escort by our side, along

The border of the crimson - seething flood,

Whence, from those steep'd within, loud shrieks arose.

Some there I mark'd, as high as to their brow

Immersed, of whom the mighty Centaur thus:

"These are the souls of tyrants, who were given

To blood and rapine. Here they wail aloud

Their merciless wrongs. Here Alexander dwells,

And Dionysius fell, who many a year

Of woe wrought for fair Sicily. That brow,

Whereon the hair so jetty clustering hangs,

Is Azzolino;^8 that with flaxen locks

Obizzo^9 of Este, in the world destroy'd

By his foul step - son." To the bard revered

I turn'd me round, and thus he spake: "Let him

Be to thee now first leader, me but next

To him in rank." Then further on a space

The Centaur paused, near some, who at the throat

Were extant from the wave; and, showing us

A spirit by itself apart retired,

Exclaim'd: "He^10 in God's bosom smote the heart,

Which yet is honored on the bank of Thames."

A race I next espied who held the head,

And even all the bust, above the stream.

'Midst these I many a face remember'd well.

Thus shallow more and more the blood became,

So that at last it but imbrued the feet;

And there our passage lay athwart the foss.

"As ever on this side the boiling wave

Thou seest diminishing," the Centaur said,

"So on the other, be thou well assured,

It lower still and lower sinks its bed,

Till in that part it reuniting join,

Where 'tis the lot of tyranny to mourn.

There Heaven's stern justice lays chastising hand

On Attila, who was the scourge of earth,

On Sextus and on Pyrrhus,^11 and extracts

Tears ever by the seething flood unlock'd

From the Rinieri, of Corneto this,

Pazzo the other named,^12 who fill'd the ways

With violence and war." This said, he turn'd,

And quitting us, alone repass'd the ford.

[Footnote 1: "Adice's stream." After a great deal having been said on the

subject, it still appears very uncertain at what part of the river this fall

of the mountain happened.]

[Footnote 2: "The infamy of Crete." The Minotaur.]

[Footnote 3: "The feign'd heifer." Pasiphae.]

[Footnote 4: "The King of Athens." Theseus, who was enabled by the instruction

of Ariadne, the sister of the Minotaur, to destroy that monster.]

[Footnote 5: "Thy sister's art." Ariadne.]

[Footnote 6: Our Saviour, who, according to Dante, when he ascended from Hell,

carried with him the souls of the Patriarchs, and of other just men, out of

the first circle. See Canto iv.]

[Footnote 7: Nessus, when dying by the hand of Hercules, charged Deianira to

preserve the gore from his wound; for that if the affections of Hercules

should at any time be estranged from her, it would recall them. Deianira had

occasion to try the experiment; and the venom, as Nessus had intended, caused

Hercules to expire in torments.]

[Footnote 8: Azzolino, or Ezzolino di Romano, Lord of Padua, Vicenza, Verona,

and Brescia, who died in 1260. His atrocities form the subject of a Latin

tragedy, Eccerinis, by Albertino Mussato, of Padua, contemporary of Dante, and

the most elegant writer of Latin verse of that age.]

[Footnote 9: "Obizzo of Este." Marquis of Ferrara and of the Marca d' Ancona,

was murdered by his own son (whom, for that most unnatural act, Dante calls

his stepson) for the sake of the treasures which his rapacity had amassed.]

[Footnote 10: "He." "Henrie, the brother of this Edmund, and son to the

foresaid King of Almaine (Richard, brother of Henry III of England), as he

returned from Affrike, where he had been with Prince Edward, was slain at

Viterbo in Italy by the hand of Guy de Montfort, the son of Simon de Montfort,

Earl of Leicester, in revenge of the same Simon's death. The murther was

committed afore the high altar, as the same Henrie kneeled there to hear

divine service." A. D. 1272. - Holinshed's Chron., p. 275. See also Giov.

Villani, "Hist." lib. vii. c. xl., where it is said "that the heart of Henry

was put into a golden cup, and placed on a pillar at London Bridge for a

memorial to the English of the said outrage."]

[Footnote 11: Sextus, either the son of Tarquin the Proud or of Pompey the

Great; and Pyrrhus, King of Epirus.]

[Footnote 12: Two noted marauders, by whose depredations the public ways were

infested. The latter was of the noble family of Pazzi in Florence.]

Canto XIII


     Still in the seventh circle, Dante enters its second compartment, which

contains both those who have done violence on their own persons and those who

have violently consumed their goods; the first changed into rough and knotted

trees whereon the harpies build their nests, the latter chased and torn by

black female mastiffs. Among the former, Piero delle Vigne is one who tells

him the cause of his having committed suicide, and moreover in what manner the

souls are transformed into those trunks. Of the latter crew, he recognizes

Lano, a Siennese, and Giacomo, a Paduan; and lastly, a Florentine, who had

hung himself from his own roof, speaks to him of the calamities of his


Ere Nessus yet had reach'd the other bank,

We enter'd on a forest, where no track

Of steps had worn a way. Not verdant there

The foliage, but of dusky hue; not light

The boughs and tapering, but with knares deform'd

And matted thick: fruits there were none, but thorns

Instead, with venom fill'd. Less sharp than these,

Less intricate the brakes, wherein abide

Those animals, that hate the cultured fields,

Betwixt Corneto and Cecina's stream.^1

Here the brute harpies make their nest, the same

Who from the Strophades the Trojan band

Drove with dire boding o  their future woe.

Broad are their pennons, of the human form

Their neck and countenance, arm'd with talons keen

The feet, and the huge belly fledged with wings.

These sit and wail on the drear mystic wood.

The kind instructor in these words began:

"Ere further thou proceed, know thou art now

I' th' second round, and shalt be, till thou come

Upon the horrid sand: look therefore well

Around thee, and such things thou shalt behold,

As would my speech discredit." On all sides

I heard sad plainings breathe, and none could see

From whom they might have issued. In amaze

Fast bound I stood. He, as it seem'd, believed

That I had thought so many voices came

From some amid those thickets close conceal'd,

And thus his speech resum'd: "If thou lop off

A single twig from one of those ill plants,

The thought thou hast conceived shall vanish quite."

Thereat a little stretching forth my hand,

From a great wilding gather'd I a branch,

And straight the trunk exclaim'd: "Why pluck'st thou me?"

Then, as the dark blood trickled down its side,

These words it added: "Wherefore tear'st me thus?

Is there no touch of mercy in thy breast?

Men once were we, that now are rooted here.

Thy hand might well have spared us, had we been

The souls of serpents." As a brand yet green,

That burning at one end from the other sends

A groaning sound, and hisses with the wind

That forces out its way, so burst at once

Forth from the broken splinter words and blood.

I, letting fall the bough, remain'd as one

Assail'd by terror; and the sage replied:

"If he, O injured spirit! could have believed

What he hath seen but in my verse described,

He never against thee had stretch'd his hand.

But I, because the thing surpass'd belief,

Prompted him to this deed, which even now

Myself I rue. But tell me, who thou wast;

That, for this wrong to do thee some amends,

In the upper world (for thither to return

Is granted him) thy fame he may revive."

"That pleasant word of thine," the trunk replied,

"Hath so inveigled me, that I from speech

Cannot refrain, wherein if I indulge

A little longer, in the snare detain'd,

Count it not grievous. I it was,^2 who held

Both keys to Frederick's heart, and turn'd the wards,

Opening and shutting, with a skill so sweet,

That besides me, into his inmost breast

Scarce any other could admittance find.

The faith I bore to my high charge was such,

It cost me the life - blood that warm'd my veins.

The harlot, who ne'er turn'd her gloating eyes

From Caesar's household, common vice and pest

Of courts, 'gainst me inflamed the minds of all;

And to Augustus they so spread the flame,

That my glad honours changed to bitter woes.

My soul, disdainful and disgusted, sought

Refuge in death from scorn, and I became,

Just as I was, unjust toward myself.

By the new roots, which fix this stem, I swear,

That never faith I broke my liege lord,

Who merited such honour; and of you,

If any to the world indeed return,

Clear he from wrong my memory, that lies

Yet prostrate under envy's cruel blow."

First somewhat pausing, till the mournful words

Were ended, then to me the bard began:

"Lose not the time; but speak, and of him ask,

If more thou wish to learn." Whence I replied:

"Question thou him again of whatsoe'er

Will, as thou think'st, content me; for no power

Have I to ask, such pity is at my heart."

He thus resumed: "So may he do for thee

Freely what thou entreatest, as thou yet

Be pleased, imprison'd spirit! to declare,

How in these gnarled joints the soul is tied;

And whether any ever from such frame

Be loosen'd, if thou canst, that also tell."

Thereat the trunk breathed hard, and the wind soon

Changed into sounds articulate like these:

"Briefly ye shall be answer'd. When departs

The fierce soul from the body, by itself

Thence torn asunder, to the seventh gulf

By Minos doom'd, into the wood it falls,

No place assign'd, but wheresoever chance

Hurls it; there sprouting, as a grain of spelt,

It rises to a sapling, growing thence

A savage plant. The harpies, on its leaves

Then feeding, cause both pain, and for the pain

A vent to grief. We, as the rest, shall come

For our own spoils, yet not so that with them

We may again be clad; for what a man

Takes from himself it is not just he have.

Here we perforce shall drag them; and throughout

The dismal glade our bodies shall be hung,

Each on the wild thorn of his wretched shade."

Attentive yet to listen to the trunk

We stood, expecting further speech, when us

A noise surprised; as when a man perceives

The wild boar and the hunt approach his place

Of station'd watch, who of the beasts and boughs

Loud rustling round him hears. And lo! there came

Two naked, torn with briers, in headlong flight,

That they before them broke each fan o' th' wood.

"Haste now," the foremost cried, "now haste thee, death!"

The other, as seem'd, impatient of delay,

Exclaiming, "Lano!^3 not so bent for speed

Thy sinews, in the lists of Toppo's field."

And then, for that perchance no longer breath

Sufficed him, of himself and of a bush

One group he made. Behind them was the wood

Full of black female mastiffs, gaunt and fleet,

As greyhounds that have newly slipt the leash.

On him, who squatted down, they stuck their fangs,

And having rent him piecemeal bore away

The tortured limbs. My guide then seized my hand,

And led me to the thicket, which in vain

Mourn'd through its bleeding wounds: "O Giacomo

Of Sant' Andrea!^4 what avails it thee,"

It cried, "that of me thou hast made thy screen?

For thy ill life, what blame on me recoils?

When o'er it he had paused, my master spake:

"Say who wast thou, that at so many points

Breathest out with blood thy lamentable speech?"

He answer'd: "O ye spirits! arrived in time

To spy the shameful havoc that from me

My leaves hath sever'd thus, gather them up,

And at the foot of their sad parent - tree

Carefully lay them. In that city^5 I dwelt,

Who for the Baptist her first patron changed,

Whence he for this shall cease not with his art

To work her woe: and if there still remain'd not

On Arno's passage some faint glimpse of him,

Those citizens, who rear'd once more her walls

Upon the ashes left by Attila,

Had labor'd without profit of their toil.

I slung the fatal noose^6 from my own roof."

[Footnote 1: A wild and woody tract, abounding in deer, goats, and wild boars.

Cecina is a river not far to the south of Leghorn; Corneto, a small city on

the same coast, in the patrimony of the Church.]

[Footnote 2: "I it was." Piero delle Vigne, a native of Capua, who from a low

condition raised himself, by his eloquence and legal knowledge, to the office

of Chancellor to the Emperor Frederick II. The courtiers, envious of his

exalted situation, forged letters to make Frederick believe that he held a

secret and traitorous intercourse with the Pope, who was then at enmity with

the Emperor. He was cruelly condemned to lose his eyes. Driven to despair by

his unmerited calamity he dashed out his brains against the walls of a church,

in the year 1245.]

[Footnote 3: Lano, a Siennese, who being reduced by prodigality to a state of

extreme want, found his existence no longer supportable; and having been sent

by his countrymen on a military expedition to assist the Florentines against

the Aretini, took that opportunity of exposing himself to certain death, in

the engagement which took place at Toppo, near Arezzo. See G. Villani, Hist.

lib. vii. c. cxix.]

[Footnote 4: Jacopo da Sant' Andrea, a Paduan, who, having wasted his property

in the most wanton acts of profusion, killed himself in despair.]

[Footnote 5: "_____ Florence, that city which changed her first patron Mars

for St. John the Baptist."]

[Footnote 6: "I slung the fatal noose." We are not informed who this suicide

was; some calling him Rocco de' Mozzi, and others Lotto degli Agli.]

Canto XIV


     They arrive at the beginning of the third of those compartments into

which this seventh circle is divided. It is a plain of dry and hot sand, where

three kinds of violence are punished; namely, against God, against Nature, and

against Art; and those who have thus sinned, are tormented by flakes of fire,

which are eternally showering down upon them. Among the violent against God is

found Capaneus, whose blasphemies they hear. Next, turning to the left along

the forest of self - slayers, and having journeyed a little onward, they meet

with a streamlet of blood that issues from the forest and traverses the sandy

plain. Here Virgil speaks to our Poet of a huge ancient statue that stands

within Mount Ida in Crete, from a fissure in which statue there is a dripping

of tears, from which the said streamlet, together with the three other

infernal rivers, are formed.

Soon as the charity of native land

Wrought in my bosom, I the scatter'd leaves

Collected, and to him restored, who now

Was hoarse with utterance. To the limit thence

We came, which from the third the second round

Divides, and where of justice is display'd

Contrivance horrible. Things then first seen

Clearlier to manifest, I tell how next

A plain we reach'd, that from its sterile bed

Each plant repell'd. The mournful wood waves round

Its garland on all sides, as round the wood

Spreads the sad foss. There, on the very edge,

Our steps we stay'd. It was an area wide

Of arid sand and thick, resembling most

The soil that erst by Cato's foot was trod.

Vengeance of heaven! Oh! how shouldst thou be fear'd

By all, who read what here mine eyes beheld.

Of naked spirits many a flock I saw,

All weeping piteously, to different laws

Subjected; for on the earth some lay supine,

Some crouching close were seated, others paced

Incessantly around; the latter tribe

More numerous, those fewer who beneath

The torment lay, but louder in their grief.

O'er all the sand fell slowly wafting down

Dilated flakes of fire, as flakes of snow

On Alpine summit, when the wind is hush'd.

As, in the torrid Indian clime, the son

Of Ammon saw, upon his warrior band

Descending, solid flames, that to the ground

Came down; whence he bethought him with his troop

To trample on the soil; for easier thus

The vapor was extinguish'd, while alone:

So fell the eternal fiery flood, wherewith

The marle glow'd underneath, as under stove

The viands, doubly to augment the pain.

Unceasing was the play of wretched hands,

Now this, now that way glancing, to shake off

The heat, still falling fresh. I thus began:

"Instructor! thou who all things overcomest,

Except the hardy demons that rush'd forth

To stop our entrance at the gate, say who

Is yon huge spirit, that, as seems, heeds not

The burning, but lies writhen in proud scorn,

As by the sultry tempest immatured?"

Straight he himself, who was aware I ask'd

My guide of him, exclaim'd: "Such as I was

When living, dead such now I am. If Jove

Weary his workman out, from whom in ire

He snatch'd the lightnings, that at my last day

Transfix'd me; if the rest he weary out,

At their black smithy laboring by turns,

In Mongibello, while he cries aloud,

'Help, help, good Mulciber!' as erst he cried

In the Phlegraean warfare; and the bolts

Launch he, full aim'd at me, with all his might;

He never should enjoy a sweet revenge."

Then thus my guide, in accent higher raised

Than I before had heard him: "Capaneus!

Thou art more punish'd, in that this thy pride

Lives yet unquench'd: no torment, save thy rage,

Were to thy fury pain proportion'd full."

Next turning round to me, with milder lip

He spake: "This of the seven kings was one,

Who girt the Theban walls with siege, and held,

As still he seems to hold, God in disdain,

And sets His high omnipotence at naught.

But, as I told him, his despiteful mood

Is ornament well suits the breast that wears it.

Follow me now; and look thou set not yet

Thy foot in the hot sand, but to the wood

Keep ever close." Silently on we pass'd

To where there gushes from the forest's bound

A little brook, whose crimson'd wave yet lifts

My hair with horror. As the rill, that runs

From Bulicame,^1 to be portion'd out

Among the sinful women, so ran this

Down through the sand; its bottom and each bank

Stone - built, and either margin at its side,

Whereon I straight perceived our passage lay.

"Of all that I have shown thee, since that gate

We enter'd first, whose threshold is to none

Denied, naught else so worthy of regard,

As is this river, has thine eye discern'd,

O'er which the flaming volley all is quench'd."

So spake my guide; and I him thence besought,

That having given me appetite to know,

The food he too would give, that hunger craved.

"In midst of ocean," forthwith he began,

"A desolate country lies, which Crete is named;

Under whose monarch, in old times, the world

Lived pure and chaste. A mountain rises there,

Call'd Ida, joyous once with leaves and streams,

Deserted now like a forbidden thing.

It was the spot which Rhea, Saturn's spouse,

Chose for the secret cradle of her son;

And better to conceal him, drown'd in shouts

His infant cries. Within the mount, upright

An ancient form there stands, and huge, that turns

His shoulders toward Damiata; and at Rome,

As in his mirror, looks. Of finest gold

His head is shaped, pure silver are the breast

And arms, thence to the middle is of brass,

And downward all beneath well - temper'd steel,

Save the right foot of potter's clay, on which

Than on the other more erect he stands.

Each part, except the gold, is rent throughout;

And from the fissure tears distil, which join'd

Penetrate to that cave. They in their course,

Thus far precipitated down the rock,

Form Acheron, and Styx, and Phlegethon;

Then by this straiten'd channel passing hence

Beneath e'en to the lowest depth of all,

Form there Cocytus, of whose lake (thyself

Shalt see it) I here give thee no account."

Then I to him: "If from our world this sluice

Be thus derived; wherefore to us but now

Appears it at this edge?" He straight replied:

"The place, thou know'st, is round: and though great part

Thou have already past, still to the left

Descending to the nethermost, not yet

Hast thou the circuit made of the whole orb.

Wherefore, if aught of new to us appear,

It needs not bring up wonder in thy looks."

Then I again inquired: "Where flow the streams

Of Phlegethon and Lethe? for of one

Thou tell'st not; and the other, of that shower,

Thou say'st, is form'd." He answer thus return'd:

"Doubtless thy questions all well pleased I hear.

Yet the red seething wave^2 might have resolved

One thou proposest. Lethe thou shalt see,

But not within this hollow, in the place

Whither,^3 to lave themselves, the spirits go,

Whose blame hath been by penitence removed."

He added: "Time is now we quit the wood.

Look thou my steps pursue: the margins give

Safe passage, unimpeded by the flames;

For over them all vapor is extinct."

[Footnote 1: A warm medicinal spring near Viterbo; the waters of which, as

Landino and Vellutelli affirm, passed by a place of ill - fame. Venturi

conjectures that Dante would imply that it was the scene of licentious

merriment among those who frequented its baths.]

[Footnote 2: Phlegethon.]

[Footnote 3: The other side of Purgatory]

Canto XV


     Taking their way upon one of the mounds by which the streamlet, spoken of

in the last Canto, was embanked, and having gone so far that they could no

longer have discerned the forest if they had turned round to look for it, they

meet a troop of spirits that come along the sand by the side of the pier.

These are they who have done violence to Nature; and among them Dante

distinguishes Brunetto Latini, who had been formerly his master; with whom,

turning a little backward, he holds a discourse which occupies the remainder

of this Canto.

One of the solid margins bears us now

Envelop'd in the mist, that, from the stream

Arising, hovers o'er, and saves from fire

Both piers and water. As the Flemings rear

Their mound, 'twixt Ghent and Bruges, to chase back

The ocean, fearing his tumultuous tide

That drives toward them; or the Paduans theirs

Along the Brenta, to defend their towns

And castles, ere the genial warmth be felt

On Chiarentana's^1 top; such were the mounds,

So framed, though not in height or bulk to these

Made equal, by the master, whosoe'er

He was, that raised them here. We from the wood

Were now so far removed, that turning round

I might not have discern'd it, when we met

A troop of spirits, who came beside the pier.

They each one eyed us, as at eventide

One eyes another under a new moon;

And toward us sharpen'd their sight, as keen

As an old tailor at his needle's eye.

Thus narrowly explored by all the tribe,

I was agnized of one, who by the skirt

Caught me, and cried, "What wonder have we here?"

And I, when he to me outstretch'd his arm,

Intently fix'd my ken on his parch'd looks,

That, although smirch'd with fire, they hinder'd not

But I remember'd him; and toward his face

My hand inclining, answer'd: "Ser Brunetto!^2

And are ye here?" He thus to me: "My son!

Oh let it not displease thee, if Brunetto

Latini but a little space with thee

Turn back, and leave his fellows to proceed."

I thus to him replied: "Much as I can,

I thereto pray thee; and if thou be willing

That I here seat me with thee, I consent;

His leave, with whom I journey, first obtain'd."

"O son!" said he, "whoever of this throng

One instant stops, lies then a hundred years,

No fan to ventilate him, when the fire

Smitest sorest. Pass thou therefore on. I close

Will at thy garments walk, and then rejoin

My troop, who go mourning their endless doom."

I dared not from the path descend to tread

On equal ground with him, but held my head

Bent down, as one who walks in reverent guise.

"What chance or destiny," thus he began,

"Ere the last day, conducts thee here below?

And who is this that shows to thee the way?"

"There up aloft," I answer'd, "in the life

Serene, I wander'd in a valley lost,

Before mine age had to its fullness reach'd.

But yester - morn I left it: then once more

Into that vale returning, him I met;

And by this path homeward he leads me back."

"If thou," he answer'd, "follow but thy star,

Thou canst not miss at last a glorious haven;

Unless in fairer days my judgment err'd.

And if my fate so early had not chanced,

Seeing the heavens thus bounteous to thee, I

Had gladly given thee comfort in thy work.

But that ungrateful and malignant race,

Who in old times came down from Fesole,

Ay and still smack of their rough mountain flint,

Will for thy good deeds show thee enmity.

Nor wonder; for amongst ill - savor'd crabs

It suits not the sweet fig - tree lay her fruit.

Old fame reports them in the world for blind,

Covetous, envious, proud. Look to it well:

Take heed thou cleanse thee of their ways. For thee,

Thy fortune hath such honor in reserve,

That thou by either party shalt be craved

With hunger keen: but be the fresh herb far

From the goat's tooth. The herd of Fesole

May of themselves make litter, not touch the plant,

If any such yet spring on their rank bed,

In which the holy seed revives, transmitted

From those true Romans, who still there remain'd,

When it was made the nest of so much ill."

"Were all my wish fulfill'd," I straight replied,

"Thou from the confines of man's nature yet

Hadst not been driven forth; for in my mind

Is fix'd, and now strikes full upon my heart,

The dear, benign, paternal image, such

As thine was, when so lately thou didst teach me

The way for man to win eternity:

And how I prized the lesson, it behoves,

That, long as life endures, my tongue should speak.

What of my fate thou tell'st, that write I down;

And, with another text^3 to comment on,

For her I keep it, the celestial dame,

Who will know all, if I to her arrive.

This only would I have thee clearly note:

That, so my conscience have no plea against me,

Do Fortune as she list, I stand prepared.

Not new or strange such earnest to mine ear.

Speed Fortune then her wheel, as likes her best;

The clown his mattock; all things have their course."

Thereat my sapient guide upon his right

Turn'd himself back, then looked at me, and spake:

"He listens to good purpose who takes note."

I not the less still on my way proceed,

Discoursing with Brunetto, and inquire

Who are most known and chief among his tribe.

"To know of some is well;" he thus replied,

"But of the rest silence may best beseem.

Time would not serve us for report so long.

In brief I tell thee, that all these were clerks,

Men of great learning and no less renown,

By one same sin polluted in the world.

With them is Priscian; and Accorso's son,

Francesco,^4 herds among the wretched throng:

And, if the wish of so impure a blotch

Possess'd thee, him^5 thou also mightst have seen,

Who by the servants' servant was transferr'd

From Arno's seat to Bacchiglione, where

His ill - strain'd nerves he left. I more would add,

But must from further speech and onward way

Alike desist; for yonder I behold

A mist new - risen on the sandy plain.

A company, with whom I may not sort,

Approaches, I commend my Treasure to thee,

Wherein I yet survive; my sole request."

This said, he turn'd, and seem'd as one of those

Who o'er Verona's champaign try their speed

For the green mantle; and of them he seem'd,

Not he who loses but who gains the prize.

[Footnote 1: A part of the Alps where the Brenta rises, swollen by melting


[Footnote 2: "Ser Brunetto, a Florentine, the secretary or chancellor of the

city, and Dante's preceptor, hath left us a work so little read, that both the

subject of it and the language of it have been mistaken. It is in the French

spoken in the reign of St. Louis, under the title of 'Tresor'; and contains a

species of philosophical lectures."]

[Footnote 3: "With another text." He refers to the predictions of Farinata, in

Canto x.]

[Footnote 4: "Francesco." Accorso, a Florentine, interpreted the Roman law at

Bologna, and died in 1229, at the age of 78. His authority was so great as to

exceed that of all the other interpreters, so that Cino da Pistoia termed him

the Idol of Advocates. His sepulchre, and that of his son Francesco here

spoken of, is at Bologna, with this short epitaph: "Sepulcrum Accursii

Glossatoris et Francisci eus Filii."]

[Footnote 5: "Him." Andrea de' Mozzi, who, that his scandalous life might be

less exposed to observation, was translated either by Nicholas III or Boniface

VIII from the see of Florence to that of Vicenza, through which passes the

river Bacchiglione. He died at Vicenza.]

Canto XVI


     Journeying along the pier, which crosses the sand, they are now so near

the end of it as to hear the noise of the stream falling into the eighth

circle, when they meet the spirits of three military men; who judging Dante,

from his dress, to be a countryman of theirs, entreat him to stop. He complies

and speaks with them. The two Poets then reach the place where the water

descends, being the termination of this third compartment in the seventh

circle; and here Virgil, having thrown down into the hollow a cord, wherewith

Dante was girt, they behold at that signal a monstrous and horrible figure

come swimming up to them.

Now came I where the water's din was heard

As down it fell into the other round,

Resounding like the hum of swarming bees:

When forth together issued from a troop,

That pass'd beneath the fierce tormenting storm,

Three spirits, running swift. They toward us came,

And each one cried aloud, "Oh! do thou stay,

Whom, by the fashion of thy garb, we deem

To be some inmate of our evil land."

Ah me! what wounds I mark'd upon their limbs,

Recent and old, inflicted by the flames.

E'en the remembrance of them grieves me yet.

Attentive to their cry, my teacher paused,

And turned to me his visage, and then spake:

"Wait now: our courtesy these merit well:

And were't not for the nature of the place,

Whence glide the fiery darts, I should have said,

That haste had better suited thee than them."

They, when we stopp'd, resumed their ancient wail,

And, soon as they had reach'd us, all the three

Whirl'd round together in one restless wheel.

As naked champions, smear'd with slippery oil

Are wont, intent, to watch their place of hold

And vantage, ere in closer strife they meet;

Thus each one, as he wheel'd, his countenance

At me directed, so that opposite

The neck moved ever to the twinkling feet.

"If woe of this unsound and dreary waste,"

Thus one began, "added to our sad cheer

Thus peel'd with flame, do call forth scorn on us

And our entreaties, let our great renown

Incline thee to inform us who thou art,

That dost imprint, with living feet unharm'd,

The soil of Hell. He, in whose track thou seest

My steps pursuing, naked though he be

And reft of all, was of more high estate

Than thou believest; grandchild of the chaste

Gualdrada,^1 him they Guidoguerra call'd,

Who in his lifetime many a noble act

Achieved, both by his wisdom and his sword.

The other, next to me that beats the sand,

Is Aldobrandi,^2 name deserving well,

In the upper world, of honor; and myself,

Who in this torment do partake with them,

Am Rusticucci,^3 whom, past doubt, my wife,

Of savage temper, more than aught beside

Hath to this evil brought." If from the fire

I had been shelter'd, down amidst them straight

I then had cast me; nor my guide, I deem,

Would have restrain'd my going: but that fear

Of the dire burning vanquish'd the desire,

Which made me eager of their wish'd embrace.

I then began: "Nor scorn, but grief much more,

Such as long time alone can cure, your doom

Fix'd deep within me, soon as this my lord

Spake words, whose tenor taught me to expect

That such a race, as ye are, was at hand.

I am a countryman of yours, who still

Affectionate have utter'd, and have heard

Your deeds and names renown'd. Leaving the gall,

For the sweet fruit I go, that a sure guide

Hath promised to me. But behoves, that far

As to the centre first I downward tend."

"So may long space thy spirit guide thy limbs,"

He answer straight return'd; "and so thy fame

Shine bright when thou art gone, as thou shalt tell,

If courtesy and valor, as they wont,

Dwell in our city, or have vanish'd clean:

For one amidst us late condemn'd to wail,

Borsiere,^4 yonder walking with his peers,

Grieves us no little by the news he brings."

"An upstart multitude and sudden gains,

Pride and excess, O Florence! have in thee

Engender'd, so that now in tears thou mourn'st!"

Thus cried I, with my face upraised, and they

All three, who for an answer took my words,

Look'd at each other, as men look when truth

Comes to their ear. "If at so little cost,"

They all at once rejoin'd, "thou satisfy

Others who question thee, O happy thou!

Gifted with words so apt to speak thy thought.

Wherefore, if thou escape this darksome clime,

Returning to behold the radiant stars,

When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past,^5

See that of us thou speak among mankind."

This said, they broke the circle, and so swift

Fled, that as pinions seem'd their nimble feet.

Not in so short a time might one have said

"Amen," as they had vanish'd. Straight my guide

Pursued his track. I follow'd: and small space

Had we past onward, when the water's sound

Was now so near at hand, that we had scarce

Heard one another's speech for the loud din.

E'en as the river,^6 that first holds its course

Unmingled from the Mount of Vesulo,

On the left side of Apennine, toward

The east, which Acquacheta higher up

They call, ere it descend into the vale,

At Forli,^7 by that name no longer known,

Rebellows o'er Saint Benedict, roll'd on

From the Alpine summit down a precipice,

Where space^8 enough to lodge a thousand spreads;

Thus downward from a craggy steep we found

That this dark wave resounded, roaring loud,

So that the ear its clamour soon had stunn'd.

I had a cord^9 that braced my girdle round,

Wherewith I erst had thought fast bound to take

The painted leopard. This when I had all

Unloosen'd from me (so my master bade)

I gather'd up, and stretch'd it forth to him.

Then to the right he turn'd, and from the brink

Standing few paces distant, cast it down

Into the deep abyss. "And somewhat strange,"

Thus to myself I spake, "signal so strange

Betokens, which my guide with earnest eye

Thus follows." Ah! what caution must men use

With those who look not at the deed alone,

But spy into the thoughts with subtle skill.

"Quickly shall come," he said, "what I expect;

Thine eye discover quickly that, whereof

Thy thought is dreaming." Ever to that truth,

Which but the semblance of a falsehood wears,

A man, if possible, should bar his lip;

Since, although blameless, he incurs reproach.

But silence here were vain; and by these notes,

Which now I sing, reader, I swear to thee,

So may they favor find to latest times!

That through the gross and murky air I spied

A shape come swimming up, that might have quell'd

The stoutest heart with wonder; in such guise

As one returns, who hath been down to loose

An anchor grappled fast against some rock,

Or to aught else that in the salt wave lies,

Who, upward springing, close draws in his feet.

[Footnote 1: Gualdrada." Gualdrada was the daughter of Bellincione Berti, of

whom mention is made in the Paradise, Cantos xv and xvi. He was of the family

of Ravignani, a branch of the Adimari. The Emperor Otho IV being at a festival

in Florence, where Gualdrada was present, was struck with her beauty; and

inquiring who she was, was answered by Bellincione, that she was the daughter

of one who, if it was his Majesty's pleasure, would make her admit the honor

of his salute. On overhearing this, she arose from her seat, and blushing,

desired her father that he would not be so liberal in his offers. The Emperor

was delighted by her resolute modesty, and calling to him Guido, one of his

barons, gave her to him in marriage; at the same time raising him to the rank

of a count, and bestowing on her the whole of Casentino, and a part of the

territory of Romagna, as her portion. Two sons were the offspring of this

union, Guglielmo and Ruggieri; the latter was father of Guidoguerra, who, at

the head of four hundred Florentines of the Guelf party, was signally

instrumental to the victory of Charles of Anjou at Benevento, over Manfredi,

King of Naples, in 1265. One consequence of this was the expulsion of the

Ghibellini and the re - establishment of the Guelfi at Florence.]

[Footnote 2: Tegghiaio Aldobrandi endeavored to dissuade the Florentines from

the attack which they meditated against the Siennese; the rejection of his

counsel occasioned the defeat which the former sustained at Montaperto, and

the consequent banishment of the Guelfi from Florence.]

[Footnote 3: Giacopo Rusticucci, a Florentine, remarkable for his opulence and

generosity of spirit.]

[Footnote 4: Guglielmo Borsiere, a Florentine, whom Boccaccio terms " a man of

courteous and elegant manners, and of great readiness in conversation."]

[Footnote 5: "Quando ti giovera dicere io fui." So Tasso, "G.L." c. xv. st.

38: "Quando mi giovera narrar altrui Le novita vedute, e dire; io fui."]

[Footnote 6: He compares the fall of Phlegethon to that of the Montone (a

river in Romagna) form the Apennines above the Abbey of St. Benedict. All the

other streams that rise between the sources of the Po and the Montone, and

fall from the left side of the Apennines, join the Po and accompany it to the


[Footnote 7: There it loses the name of Acquacheta, and takes that of


[Footnote 8: Either because the abbey was capable of containing more than

those who occupied it, or because (says Landino) the lords of that territory

had intended to build a castle near the water - fall, and to collect within

its walls the population of the neighboring villages.]

[Footnote 9: "A cord." It is believed that our poet in early life, had entered

into the order of St. Francis. By observing the rules of that profession he

had designed "to take the painted leopard" (that animal represented Pleasure)

"with this cord.")]

Canto XVII


     The monster Geryon is described; to whom while Virgil is speaking in

order that he may carry them both down to the next circle, Dante, by

permission, goes further along the edge of the void, to descry the third

species of sinners contained in this compartment, namely, those who have done

violence to Art; and then returning to his master, they both descend, seated

on the back of Geryon.

"Lo! the fell monster^1 with the deadly sting,

Who passes mountains, breaks through fenced walls

And firm embattled spears, and with his filth

Taints all the world." Thus me my guide address'd,

And beckon'd him, that he should come to shore,

Near to the stony causeway's utmost edge.

Forthwith that image vile of Fraud appear'd,

His head and upper part exposed on land,

But laid not on the shore his bestial train.

His face the semblance of a just man's wore,

So kind and gracious was its outward cheer;

The rest was serpent all: two shaggy claws

Reach'd to the arm - pits; and the back and breast,

And either side, were painted o'er with nodes

And orbits. Colours variegated more

Nor Turks nor Tartars e'er on cloth of state

With interchangeable embroidery wove,

Nor spread Arachne o'er her curious loom.

As oft - times a light skiff, moor'd to the shore,

Stands part in water, part upon the land;

Or, as where dwells the greedy German boor,

The beaver settles, watching for his prey;

So on the rim, that fenced the sand with rock,

Sat perch'd the fiend of evil. In the void

Glancing, his tail upturn'd its venomous fork,

With sting like scorpion's arm'd. Then thus my guide,

"Now need our way must turn few steps apart,

Far as to that ill beast, who couches there."

Thereat, toward the right our downward course

We shaped, and, better to escape the flame

And burning marle, ten paces on the verge

Proceeded. Soon as we to him arrive,

A little farther on mine eye beholds

A tribe of spirits, seated on the sand

Near to the void. Forthwith my master spake:

"That to the full thy knowledge may extend

Of all this round contains, go now, and mark

The mien these wear: but hold not long discourse.

Till thou returnest, I with him meantime

Will parley, that to us he may vouchsafe

The aid of his strong shoulders." Thus alone,

Yet forward on the extremity I paced

Of that seventh circle, where the mournful tribe

Were seated. At the eyes forth gush'd their pangs,

Against the vapors and the torrid soil

Alternately their shifting hands they plied.

Thus use the dogs in summer still to ply

Their jaws and feet by turns, when bitten sore

By gnats, or flies, or gadflies swarming round.

Noting the visages of some, who lay

Beneath the pelting of that dolorous fire,

One of them all I knew not; but perceived,

That pendent from his neck each bore a pouch^2

With colours and with emblems various mark'd,

On which it seem'd as if their eye did feed.

And when, amongst them, looking round I came,

A yellow purse^3 I saw with azure wrought,

That wore a lion's countenance and port.

Then, still my sight pursuing its career,

Another^4 I beheld, than blood more red,

A goose display of whiter wing than curd.

And one, who bore a fat and azure swine^5

Pictured on his white scrip, address'd me thus:

"What dost thou in this deep? Go now and know,

Since yet thou livest, that my neighbor here

Vitaliano^6 on my left shall sit.

A Paduan with these Florentines am I.

Oft - times they thunder in mine ears, exclaiming,

'Oh! haste that noble knight^7, he who the pouch

With the three goats will bring.'" This said, he writhed

The mouth, and loll'd the tongue out, like an ox

That licks his nostrils. I, lest longer stay

He ill might brook, who bade me stay not long,

Backward my steps from those sad spirits turn'd.

My guide already seated on the haunch

Of the fierce animal I found; and thus

He me encouraged. "Be thou stout: be bold.

Down such a steep flight must we now descend.

Mount thou before: for, that no power the tail

May have to harm thee, I will be i' th' midst."

As one, who hath an ague fit so near,

His nails already are turn'd blue, and he

Quivers all o'er, if he but eye the shade;

Such was my cheer at hearing of his words.

But shame soon interposed her threat, who makes

The servant bold in presence of his lord.

I settled me upon those shoulders huge,

And would have said, but that the words to aid

My purpose came not, "Look thou clasp me firm."

But he whose succour then not first I proved,

Soon as I mounted, in his arms aloft,

Embracing, held me up; and thus he spake:

"Geryon! now move thee: be thy wheeling gyres

Of ample circuit, easy thy descent.

Think on the unusual burden thou sustain'st."

As a small vessel, backening out from land,

Her station quits; so thence the monster loosed,

And, when he felt himself at large, turn'd round

There, where the breast had been, his forked tail.

Thus, like an eel, outstretch'd at length he steer'd,

Gathering the air up with retractile claws.

Not greater was the dread, when Phaeton

The reins let drop at random, whence high heaven,

Whereof signs yet appear, was wrapt in flames;

Nor when ill - fated Icarus perceived,

By liquefaction of the scalded wax,

The trusted pennons loosen'd from his loins,

His sire exclaiming loud, "Ill way thou keep'st,"

Than was my dread, when round me on each part

The air I view'd, and other object none

Save the fell beast. He, slowly sailing, wheels

His downward motion, unobserved of me,

But that the wind, arising to my face,

Breathes on me from below. Now on our right

I heard the cataract beneath us leap

With hideous crash; whence bending down to explore,

New terror I conceived at the steep plunge;

For flames I saw, and wailings smote mine ear:

So that, all trembling, close I crouch'd my limbs,

And then distinguish'd, unperceived before,

By the dread torments that on every side

Drew nearer, how our downward course we wound.

As falcon, that hath long been on the wing,

But lure nor bid hath seen, while in despair

The falconer cries, "Ah me! thou stoop'st to earth,"

Wearied descends, whence nimbly he arose

In many an airy wheel, and lighting sits

At distance from his lord in angry mood;

So Geryon lighting places us on foot

Low down at base of the deep - furrow'd rock,

And, of his burden there discharged, forthwith

Sprang forward, like an arrow from the string.

[Footnote 1: "The fell monster." Fraud.]

[Footnote 2: A purse, whereon the armorial bearings of each were emblazoned.

According to Landino, our Poet implies that the usurer can pretend to no other

honor than such as he derives from his purse and his family. The description

of persons by their heraldic insignia is remarkable.]

[Footnote 3: "A yellow purse." The arms of the Gianfigliazzi of Florence.]

[Footnote 4: The arms of the Ubbriachi, another Florentine family of high


[Footnote 5: The arms of the Scrovigni, a noble family of Padua.]

[Footnote 6: Vitaliano del Dente, a Paduan.]

[Footnote 7: Giovanni Bujamonti, the most infamous usurer of his time.]



     The Poet describes the situation and form of the eight circle, divided

into ten gulfs, which contain as many different descriptions of fraudulent

sinners; but in the present Canto he treats only of two sorts: the first is of

those who, either for their own pleasure, or for that of another, have seduced

any woman from her duty; and these are scourged of demons in the first gulf:

the other sort is of flatterers, who in the second gulf are condemned to

remain immersed in filth.

There is a place within the depths of Hell

Call'd Malebolge, all of rock dark - stain'd

With hue ferruginous, e'en as the steep

That round it circling winds. Right in the midst

Of that abominable region yawns

A spacious gulf profound, whereof the frame

Due time shall tell. The circle, that remains,

Throughout its round, between the gulf and base

Of the high craggy banks, successive forms

Ten bastions, in its hollow bottom raised.

As where, to guard the walls, full many a foss

Begirds some stately castle, sure defence

Affording to the space within; so here

Were model'd these: and as like fortresses,

E'en from their threshold to the brink without,

Are flank'd with bridges; from the rock's low base

Thus flinty paths advanced, that 'cross the moles

And dykes struck onward far as to the gulf,

That in one bound collected cuts them off.

Such was the place, wherein we found ourselves

From Geryon's back dislodged. The bard to left

Held on his way, and I behind him moved.

On our right hand new misery I saw,

New pains, new executioner of wrath,

That swarming peopled that first chasm. Below

Were naked sinners. Hitherward they came,

Meeting our faces, from the middle point;

With us beyond, but with a larger stride.

E'en thus the Romans,^1 when the year returns

Of Jubilee, with better speed to rid

The thronging multitudes, their means devise

For such as pass the bridge; that on one side

All front toward the castle, and approach

Saint Peter's fane, on the other toward the mount.

Each diverse way, along the grisly rock,

Horn'd demons I beheld, with lashes huge,

That on their back unmercifully smote.

Ah! how they made them bound at the first stripe!

None for the second waited, nor the third.

Meantime, as on I pass'd, one met my sight,

Whom soon as view'd, "Of him," cried I, "not yet

Mine eye hath had his fill." I therefore stay'd

My feet to scan him, and the teacher kind

Paused with me, and consented I should walk

Backward a space; and the tormented spirit,

Who thought to hide him, bent his visage down.

But it avail'd him naught; for I exclaim'd:

"Thou who dost cast thine eye upon the ground,

Unless thy features do belie thee much,

Venedico^2 art thou. But what brings thee

Into this bitter seasoning?" He replied:

"Unwillingly I answer to thy words.

But thy clear speech, that to my mind recalls

The world I once inhabited, constrains me.

Know then 't was I who led fair Ghisola

To do the Marquis' will, however fame

The shameful tale have bruited. Nor alone

Bologna hither sendeth me to mourn.

Rather with us the place is so o'er throng'd,

That not so many tongues this day are taught,

Betwixt the Reno and Savena's stream,

To answer Sipa^3 in their country's phrase.

And if of that securer proof thou need,

Remember but our craving thirst for gold."

Him speaking thus, a demon with his throng

Struck and exclaim'd, "Away, corrupter! here

Women are none for sale." Forthwith I join'd

My escort, and few paces thence we came

To where a rock forth issued from the bank.

That easily ascended, to the right

Upon its splinter turning, we depart

From those eternal barriers. When arrived

Where, underneath, the gaping arch lets pass

The scourged souls: "Pause here," the teacher said,

"And let these others miserable now

Strike on thy ken; faces not yet beheld,

For that together they with us have walk'd."

From the old bridge we eyed the pack, who came

From the other side toward us, like the rest,

Excoriate from the lash. My gentle guide,

By me unquestion'd, thus his speech resumed:

"Behold that lofty shade, who this way tends,

And seems too woe - begone to drop a tear.

How yet the regal aspect he retains!

Jason is he, whose skill and prowess won

The ram from Colchis. To the Lemnian isle

His passage thither led him, when those bold

And pitiless women had slain all their males.

There he with tokens and fair witching words

Hypsipyle^4 beguiled, a virgin young,

Who first had all the rest herself beguiled.

Impregnated, he left her there forlorn.

Such is the guilt condemns him to this pain.

Here too Medea's injuries are avenged.

All bear him company, who like deceit

To his have practised. And thus much to know

Of the first vale suffice thee, and of those

Whom its keen torments urge." Now had we come

Where, crossing the next pier, the straiten'd path

Bestrides its shoulders to another arch.

Hence, in the second chasm we heard the ghosts,

Who gibber in low melancholy sounds,

With wide - stretch'd nostrils snort, and on themselves

Smite with their palms. Upon the banks a scurf,

From the foul steam condensed, encrusting hung,

That held sharp combat with the sight and smell.

So hollow is the depth, that from no part,

Save on the summit of the rocky span,

Could I distinguish aught. Thus far we came;

And thence I saw, within the foss below,

A crowd immersed in ordure, that appear'd

Draff of the human body. There beneath

Searching with eye inquisitive, I mark'd

One with his head so grimed, 't were hard to deem

If he were clerk or layman. Loud he cried:

"Why greedily thus bendest more on me,

Than on these other filthy ones, thy ken?"

"Because, if true my memory," I replied,

"I heretofore have seen thee with dry locks;

And thou Alessio^5 art, of Lucca sprung.

Therefore than all the rest I scan thee more."

Then beating on his brain, these words he spake:

"Me thus low down my flatteries have sunk,

Wherewith I ne'er enough could glut my tongue."

My leader thus: "A little further stretch

Thy face, that thou the visage well mayst note

Of that besotted, sluttish courtesan,

Who there doth rend her with defiled nails,

Now crouching down, now risen on her feet.

Thais^6 is this, the harlot, whose false lip

Answer'd her doting paramour that ask'd,

'Thankest me much!' - 'Say rather, wondrously,'

And, seeing this, here satiate be our view."

[Footnote 1: In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII, to remedy the inconvenience

occasioned by the press over the bridge of St. Angelo during the time of the

Jubilee, caused it to be divided lengthwise by a partition. G. Villani, who

was present, describes the order that was preserved, lib. viii. c. xxxvi. It

was at this time, and on this occasion, that he first conceived the design of

"compiling his book."]

[Footnote 2: Venedico Caccianimico, a Bolognese, who prevailed on his sister

Ghisola to prostitute herself to Obizzo da Este. (See Canto xii.)]

[Footnote 3: "To answer Sipa." He denotes Bologna by its situation between the

rivers Savena to the east and Reno to the west, and by a peculiarity of

dialect, the use of the affirmative "sipa" instead either of "si" or of


[Footnote 4: She deceived the other women, by concealing her father Thoas,

when they slew their males.]

[Footnote 5: Of the old Interminei family.]

[Footnote 6: "Thais." In the Eunuchus of Terence, Thraso asks if Thais was

obliged to him for his present; and Gnatho replies, that she had expressed her

obligation in the most forcible terms.]

Canto XIX


     They come to the third gulf, wherein are punished those who have been

guilty of simony. These are fixed with the head downward in certain apertures,

so that no more of them than the legs appears without, and on the soles of

their feet are seen burning flames. Dante is taken down by his guide into the

bottom of the gulf; and there finds Pope Nicholas V, whose evil deeds,

together with those of other pontiffs, are bitterly reprehended. Virgil then

carries him up again to the arch, which affords them a passage over the

following gulf.

Woe to thee, Simon Magus! woe to you,

His wretched followers! who the things of God,

Which should be wedded unto goodness, them,

Rapacious as ye are, do prostitute

For gold and silver in adultery.

Now must the trumpet sound for you, since yours

Is the third chasm. Upon the following vault

We now had mounted, where the rock impends

Directly o'er the centre of the foss.

Wisdom Supreme!  ow wonderful the art,

Which Thou dost manifest in Heaven, in earth,

And in the evil world, how just a meed

Allotting by Thy virtue unto all.

I saw the livid stone, throughout the sides

And in its bottom full of apertures,

All equal in their width, and circular each.

Nor ample less nor larger they appear'd

Than, in Saint John's fair dome^1 of me beloved,

Those framed to hold the pure baptismal streams,

One of the which I brake, some few years past,

To save a whelming infant: and be this

A seal to undeceive whoever doubts

The motive of my deed. From out the mouth

Of every one emerged a sinner's feet,

And of the legs high upward as the calf.

The rest beneath was hid. On either foot

The soles were burning; whence the flexile joints

Glanced with such violent motion, as had snapt

Asunder cords or twisted withes. As flame,

Feeding on unctuous matter, glides along

The surface, scarcely touching where it moves;

So here, from heel to point, glided the flames.

"Master! say who is he, than all the rest

Glancing in fiercer agony, on whom

A ruddier flame doth prey?" I thus inquired.

"If thou be willing," he replied. "that I

Carry thee down, where least the slope bank falls,

He of himself shall tell thee, and his wrongs."

I then: "As pleases thee, to me is best.

Thou art my lord; and know'st that ne'er I quit

Thy will: what silence hides, that knowest thou."

Thereat on the fourth pier we came, we turn'd

And on our left descended to the depth,

A narrow strait, and perforated close.

Nor from his side my leader set me down,

Till to his orifice he brought, whose limb

Quivering express'd his pang. "Whoe'er thou art,

Sad spirit! thus reversed, and as a stake

Driven in the soil," - I in these words began;

"If thou be able, utter forth thy voice."

There stood I like the friar, that doth shrive

A wretch for murder doom'd, who, e'en when fix'd,

Calleth him back, whence death awhile delays.

He shouted: "Ha! already standest there?

Already standest there, O Boniface!^2

By many a year the writing play'd me false.

So early dost thou surfeit with the wealth,

For which thou fearedst not in guile to take

The lovely lady, and then mangle her?"

I felt as those who, piercing not the drift

Of answer made them, stand as if exposed

In mockery, nor know what to reply;

When Virgil thus admonish'd: "Tell him quick,

'I am not he, not he whom thou believest.'"

And I, as was enjoin'd me, straight replied.

That heard, the spirit all did wrench his feet,

And, sighing, next in woeful accent spake:

"What then of me requirest? If to know

So much imports thee, who I am, that thou

Hast therefore down the bank descended, learn

That in the mighty mantle I was robed,^3

And of a she - bear was indeed the son,

So eager to advance my whelps, that there

My having in my purse above I stow'd,

And here myself. Under my head are dragg'd

The rest, my predecessors in the guilt

Of simony. Stretch'd at their length, they lie

Along an opening in the rock. 'Midst them

I also low shall fall, soon as he comes,

For whom I took thee, when so hastily

I question'd. But already longer time

Hath past, since my soles kindled, and I thus

Upturn'd have stood, than is his doom to stand

Planted with fiery feet. For after him,

One yet of deeds more ugly shall arrive,

From forth the west, a shepherd without law,^4

Fated a cover both his form and mine.

He a new Jason^5 shall be call'd, of whom

In Maccabees we read; and favor such

As to that priest his King indulgent show'd,

Shall be of France's monarch^6 shown to him."

I know not if I here too far presumed,

But in this strain I answer'd: "Tell me now

What treasures from Saint Peter at the first

Our Lord demanded, when he put the keys

Into his charge? Surely he ask'd no more

But 'Follow me!' Nor Peter,^7 nor the rest,

Or gold or silver of Matthias took,

When lots were cast upon the forfeit place

Of the condemned soul.^8 Abide thou then;

Thy punishment of right is merited:

And look thou well to that ill - gotten coin,

Which against Charles^9 thy hardihood inspired.

If reverence of the keys restrain'd me not,

Which thou in happier time didst hold, I yet

Severer speech might use. Your avarice

O'ercasts the world with mourning, under foot

Treading the good, and raising bad men up.

Of shepherds like to you, the Evangelist

Was ware, when her, who sits upon the waves,

With kings in filthy whoredom he beheld;

She who with seven heads tower'd at her birth,

And from ten horns her proof of glory drew,

Long as her spouse in virtue took delight.

Of gold and silver ye have made your god,

Differing wherein from the idolater,

But that he worships one, a hundred ye?

Ah, Constantine!^10 to how much ill gave birth,

Not thy conversion, but that plenteous dower,

Which the first wealthy Father gain'd from thee."

Meanwhile, as thus I sung, he, whether wrath

Or conscience smote him, violent upsprang

Spinning on either sole. I do believe

My teacher well was pleased, with so composed

A lip he listen'd ever to the sound

Of the true words I utter'd. In both arms

He caught, and, to his bosom lifting me,

Upward retraced the way of his descent.

Nor weary of his weight, he press'd me close,

Till to the summit of the rock we came,

Our passage from the fourth to the fifth pier.

His cherish'd burden there gently he placed

Upon the rugged rock and steep, a path

Not easy for the clambering goat to mount.

Thence to my view another vale appear'd.

[Footnote 1: The apertures in the rock were of the same dimensions as the

fonts of St. John the Baptist at Florence, one of which Dante had broken to

rescue a child that was playing near and fell in. He intimates that his motive

for breaking the font had been maliciously represented by his enemies.]

[Footnote 2: The spirit mistakes Dante for Boniface VIII (who was then alive,

and not expected to arrive so soon, a prophecy predicting the death of that

pope at a later period. Boniface died in 1303.]

[Footnote 3: Nicholas III of the Orsini family, whom the Poet therefore calls

"figliuol dell' orsa," "son of the she - bear." He died in 1281.]

[Footnote 4: Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who succeeded to the

pontificate in 1305, as Clement V. He transferred the Holy See to Avignon in

1308 (where it remained till 1376), and died in 1314.]

[Footnote 5: "But after the death of Seleucus, when Antiochus, called

Epiphanes, took the kingdom, Jason, the brother of Onias, labored to be high -

priest, promising unto the king, by intercession, three hundred and threescore

talents of silver, and of another revenue eighty talents." - Maccab. b. ii.

ch. iv, 7,8.]

[Footnote 6: Philip IV. See G. Villani, lib. viii. c. lxxx.]

[Footnote 7: Acts of the Apostles, ch. i. 26.]

[Footnote 8: "The condemned soul." Judas.]

[Footnote 9: Nicholas III was enraged against Charles I, King of Sicily,

because he rejected with scorn his proposition for an alliance between their

families. See G. Villani, Hist., lib. iii.]

[Footnote 10: He alludes to the pretended gift of the Lateran by Constantine

to Sylvester, of which Dante himself seems to imply a doubt, in his treatise

"De Monarchia."]

Canto XX


     The Poet relates the punishment of such as presumed, while living, to

predict future events. It is to have their faces reversed and set the contrary

way on their limbs, so that, being deprived of the power to see before them,

they are constrained ever to walk backward. Among these Virgil points out to

him Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns, and Manto (from the mention of whom he takes

occasion to speak of the origin of Mantua), together with several others, who

had practised the arts of divination and astrology.

And now the verse proceeds to torments new,

Fit argument of this the twentieth strain

Of the first song, whose awful theme records

The spirits whelm'd in woe. Earnest I look'd

Into the depth, that open'd to my view,

Moisten'd with tears of anguish, and beheld

A tribe, that came along the hollow vale,

In silence weeping: such their step as walk

Quires, chanting solemn litanies, on earth.

As on them more direct mine eye descends,

Each wonderously seem'd to be reversed

At the neck - bone, so that the countenance

Was from the reins averted; and because

None might before him look, they were compell'd

To advance with backward gait. Thus one perhaps

Hath been by force of palsy clean transposed,

But I ne'er saw it nor believe it so.

Now, reader! think within thyself, so God

Fruit of thy reading give thee! how I long

Could keep my visage dry, when I beheld

Near me our form distorted in such guise,

That on the hinder parts fallen from the face

The tears down - streaming roll'd. Against a rock

I leant and wept, so that my guide exclaim'd:

"What, and art thou, too, witless as the rest?

Here pity most doth show herself alive,

When she is dead. What guilt exceedeth his,

Who with Heaven's judgment in his passion strives?

Raise up thy head, raise up, and see the man

Before whose eyes^1 earth gaped in Thebes, when all

Cried out 'Amphiaraus, whither rushest?

Why leavest thou the war?' He not the less

Fell ruining far as to Minos down,

Whose grapple none eludes. Lo! how he makes

The breast his shoulders; and who once too far

Before him wish'd to see, now backward looks,

And treads reverse his path. Tiresias note,

Who semblance changed, when woman he became

Of male, through every limb transform'd; and then

Once more behoved him with his rod to strike

The two entwining serpents, ere the plumes,

That mark'd the better sex, might shoot again.

"Aruns,^2 with rere his belly facing, comes.

On Luni's mountains 'midst the marbles white,

Where delves Carrara's hind, who wons beneath,

A cavern was his dwelling, whence the stars

And main - sea whide in boundless view he held.

"The next, whose loosen'd tresses overspread

Her bosom, which thou seest not (for each hair

On that side grows) was Manto, she who search'd

Through many regions, and at length her seat

Fix'd in my native land: whence a short space

My words detain thy audience. When her sire

From life departed, and in servitude

The city dedicate to Bacchus mourn'd,

Long time she went a wanderer through the world.

Aloft in Italy's delightful land

A lake there lies, at foot of that proud Alp

That o'er the Tyrol locks Germania in,

Its name Benacus, from whose ample breast

A thousand springs, methinks, and more, between

Camonica and Garda, issuing forth,

Water the Apennine. There is a spot^3

At midway of that lake, where he who bears

Of Trento's flock the pastoral staff, with him

Of Brescia, and the Veronese, might each

Passing that way his benediction give.

A garrison of goodly site and strong

Peschiera^4 stands, to awe with front opposed

The Bergamese and Brescian, whence the shore

More slope each way descends. There, whatsoe'er

Benacus' bosom holds not, tumbling o'er

Down falls, and winds a river flood beneath

Through the green pastures. Soon as in his course

The stream makes head, Benacus then no more

They call the name, but Mincius, till at last

Reaching Governo, into Po he falls.

Not far his course hath run, when a wide flat

It finds, which overstretching as a marsh

It covers, pestilent in summer oft.

Hence journeying, the savage maiden saw

Midst of the fen a territory waste

And naked of inhabitants. To shun

All human converse, here she with her slaves,

Plying her arts, remain'd, and liv'd, and left

Her body tenantless. Thenceforth the tribes,

Who round were scatter'd, gathering to that place,

Assembled; for its strength was great, enclosed

On all parts by the fen. On those dead bones

They rear'd themselves a city, for her sake

Calling it Mantua, who first chose the spot,

Nor ask'd another omen for the name;

Wherein more numerous the people dwelt,

Ere Casalodi's madness^5 by deceit

Was wronged of Pinamonte. If thou hear

Henceforth another origin assign'd

Of that my country, I forewarn thee now,

That falsehood none beguile thee of the truth."

I answer'd, "Teacher, I conclude thy words

So certain, that all else shall be to me

As embers lacking life. But now of these,

Who here proceed, instruct me, if thou see

Any that merit more especial note.

For thereon is my mind alone intent."

He straight replied: "That spirit, from whose cheek

The beard sweeps o'er his shoulders brown, what time

Graecia was emptied of her males, that scarce

The cradles were supplied, the seer was he

In Aulis, who with Calchas gave the sign

When first to cut the cable. Him they named

Eurypilus: so sings my tragic strain,

In which majestic measure well thou know'st,

Who know'st it all. That other, round the loins

So slender of his shape, was Michael Scot,^6

Practised in every slight of magic wile.

"Guido Bonatti^7 see: Asdente mark,^8

Who now were willing he had tended still

The thread and cordwain, and too late repents.

"See next the wretches, who the needle left,

The shuttle and the spindle, and became

Diviners: baneful witcheries they wrought

With images and herbs. But onward now:

For now doth Cain with fork of thorns^9 confine

On either hemisphere, touching the wave

Beneath the towers of Scville. Yesternight

The moon was round. Thou mayst remember well:

For she good service did thee in the gloom

Of the deep wood." This said, both onward moved.

[Footnote 1: Amphiaraus, one of the seven kings who besieged Thebes. He is

said to have been swallowed up by an opening of the earth.]

[Footnote 2: Said to have dwelt in the mountains of Luni (whence that

territory is still called Lunigiana), above Carrara, celebrated for its


[Footnote 3: "There is a spot." Prato di Fame, where the dioceses of Trento,

Verona, and Brescia meet.]

[Footnote 4: "Peschiera." A garrison situated to the south of the lake, where

it empties and forms the Mincius.]

[Footnote 5: Alberto da Casalodi, in possession of Mantua, was persuaded by

Pinamonte Buonacossi to ingratiate himself with the people by banishing to

their own castles the nobles, who were obnoxious to them. Pinamonte then put

himself at the head of the populace, drove out Casalodi and his adherents, and

obtained the sovereignty for himself.]

[Footnote 6: "It is not long since there was in this city (Florence) a great

master in necromancy, called Michele Scotto, because he was from Scotland."

Boccaccio, Decameron G. viii. N. 9.]

[Footnote 7: An astrologer of Forli, on whose skill Guido da Montefeltro, lord

of that place, so relied, that he is reported never to have gone into battle,

except in the hour recommended to him by Bonatti. Landino and Vellutello speak

of his book on astrology. Macchiavelli mentions him in the History of

Florence, 1. i. p. 24. ed. 1550. "He flourished about 1230 and 1260. Though a

learned astronomer he was seduced by astrology, through which he was greatly

in favor with many princes."]

[Footnote 8: A shoemaker at Parma, who deserted his business to practice the

arts of divination.]

[Footnote 9: By Cain and the thorns ("The Man in the Moon") the Poet denotes

that luminary. The same superstition is alluded to in the Paradise, Canto ii.


Canto XXI


     Still in the eighth circle, which bears the name of Malebolge, they look

down from the bridge that passes over its fifth gulf, upon the barterers or

public peculators. These are plunged in a lake of boiling pitch, and guarded

by Demons, to whom Virgil, leaving Dante apart, presents himself; and license

being obtained to pass onward, both pursue their way.

Thus we from bridge to bridge, with other talk,

The which my drama cares not to rehearse,

Pass'd on; and to the summit reaching, stood

To view another gap, within the round

Of Malebolge, other bootless pangs.

Marvellous darkness shadow'd o'er the place.

In the Venetians' arsenal as boils

Through wintry months tenacious pitch, to smear

Their unsound vessels; for the inclement time

Seafaring men restrains, and in that while

His bark one builds anew, another stops

The ribs of his that hath made many a voyage,

One hammers at the prow, one at the poop,

This shapeth oars, that other cables twirls,

The mizzen one repairs, and main - sail rent;

So, not by force of fire but art divine,

Boil'd here a glutinous thick mass, that round

Limed all the shore beneath. I that beheld,

But therein naught distinguish'd, save the bubbles

Raised by the boiling, and one mighty swell

Heave, and by turns subsiding fall. While there

I fix'd my ken below, "Mark! mark!" my guide

Exclaiming, drew me toward him from the place

Wherein I stood. I turn'd myself, as one

Impatient to behold that which beheld

He needs must shun, whom sudden fear unmans,

That he his flight delays not for the view.

Behind me I discern'd a devil black,

That running up advanced along the rock.

Ah! what fierce cruelty his look bespake.

In act how bitter did he seem, with wings

Buoyant outstretch'd and feet of nimblest tread.

His shoulder, proudly eminent and sharp,

Was with a sinner charged; by either haunch

He held him, the foot's sinew griping fast.

"Ye of our bridge!" he cried. "keen - talon'd fiends!

Lo! one of Santa Zita's elders. Him

Whelm ye beneath, while I return for more.

That land hath store of such. All men are there,

Except Bonturo, barterers: of 'no'

For lucre there an 'ay' is quickly made."

Him dashing down, o'er the rough rock he turn'd;

Nor ever after thief a mastiff loosed

Sped with like eager haste. That other sank,

And forthwith writing to the surface rose.

But those dark demons, shrouded by the bridge,

Cried, "Here the hallow'd visage saves not: here

Is other swimming than in Serchio's wave,

Wherefore, if thou desire we rend thee not,

Take heed thou mount not o'er the pitch." This said,

They grappled him with more than hundred hooks,

And shouted: "Cover'd thou must sport thee here;

So, if thou canst, in secret mayst thou filch."

E'en thus the cook bestirs him, with his grooms,

To thrust the flesh into the caldron down

With flesh - hooks, that it float not on the top.

Me then my guide bespake: "Lest they descry

That thou art here, behind a craggy rock

Bend low and screen thee: and whate'er of force

Be offer'd me, or insult, fear thou not;

For I am well advised, who have been erst

In the like fray." Beyond the bridge's head

Therewith he pass'd; and reaching the sixth pier,

Behoved him then a forehead terror - proof.

With storm and fury, as when dogs rush forth

Upon the poor man's back, who suddenly

From whence he standeth makes his suit; so rush'd

Those from beneath the arch, and against him

Their weapons all they pointed. He, aloud:

"Be none of you outrageous: ere your tine

Dare seize me, come forth from amongst you one,

Who having heard my words, decide he then

If he shall tear these limbs." They shouted loud,

"Go, Malacoda!" Whereat one advanced,

The others standing firm, and as he came,

"What may this turn avail him?" he exclaim'd.

"Believest thou, Malacoda! I had come

Thus far from all your skirmishing secure,"

My teacher answer'd, "without will divine

And destiny propitious? Pass we then;

For so Heaven's pleasure is, that I should lead

Another through this savage wilderness."

Forthwith so fell his pride, that he let drop

The instrument of torture at his feet,

And to the rest exclaim'd: "We have no power

To strike him." Then to me my guide: "O thou!

Who on the bridge among the crags dost sit

Low crouching, safely now to me return."

I rose, and toward him moved with speed; the fiends

Meantime all forward drew: me terror seized,

Lest they should break the compact they had made.

Thus issuing from Caprona,^1 once I saw

Th' infantry, dreading lest his covenant

The foe should break; so close he hemm'd them round.

I to my leader's side adhered, mine eyes

With fixt and motionless observance bent

On their unkindly visage. They their hooks

Protruding, one the other thus bespake:

"Wilt thou I touch him on the hip?" To whom

Was answer'd: "Even so; nor miss thy aim."

But he, who was in conference with my guide,

Turn'd rapid round; and thus the demon spake:

"Stay, stay thee, Scarmiglione!" Then to us

He added: "Further footing to your step

This rock affords not, shiver'd to the base

Of the sixth arch. But would ye still proceed,

Up by this cavern go: not distant far,

Another rock will yield you passage safe.

Yesterday,^2 later by five hours than now,

Twelve hundred threescore years and six had fill'd

The circuit of their course, since here the way

Was broken. Thitherward I straight despatch

Certain of these my scouts, who shall espy

If any on the surface bask. With them

Go ye: for ye shall find them nothing fell.

Come, Alichino, forth," with that he cried,

"And Calcabrina, and Cagnozzo thou!

The troop of ten let Barbariccia lead.

With Libicocco, Draghinazzo haste,

Fang'd Ciriatta, Graffiacane fierce,

And Farfarello, and mad Rubicant.

Search ye around the bubbling tar. For these,

In safety lead them, where the other crag

Uninterrupted traverses the dens."

I then: "O master! what a sight is there.

Ah! without escort, journey we alone,

Which, if thou know the way, I covet not.

Unless thy prudence fail thee, dost not mark

How they do gnarl upon us, and their scowl

Threatens us present tortures?" He replied:

"I charge thee, fear not: let them, as they will,

Gnarl on: 'tis but in token of their spite

Against the souls who mourn in torment steep'd."

To leftward o'er the pier they turn'd; but each

Had first between his teeth prest close the tongue,

Toward their leader for a signal looking,

Which he with sound obscene triumphant gave.

[Footnote 1: "From Caprona." The surrender of the castle of Caprona to the

combined forces of Florence and Lucca, on condition that the garrison should

march out in safety, to which event Dante was a witness, took place in 1290.

See G. Villani, Hist. lib. vii. c. cxxxvi.]

[Footnote 2: "Yesterday." This passage fixes the era of Dante's descent at

Good Friday, in the year 1300 (thirty - four years from our blessed Lord's

incarnation being added to 1266), and at the thirty - fifth year of our Poet's

age. See Canto i. v. I. The awful event alluded to, the Evangelists inform us,

happened "at the ninth hour," that is, our sixth, when "the rocks were rent,"

and the convulsion, according to Dante, was felt even in the depths of Hell.

See Canto xii. v. 38.]

Canto XXII


     Virgil and Dante proceed, accompanied by the Demons, and see other

sinners of the same description in the same gulf. The device of Ciampolo, one

of these, to escape from the Demons, who had laid hold on him.

It hath been heretofore my chance to see

Horsemen with martial order shifting camp,

To onset sallying, or in muster ranged,

Or in retreat sometimes outstretch'd for flight:

Light - armed squadrons and fleet foragers

Scouring thy plains, Arezzo! have I seen,

And clashing tournaments, and titling jousts,

Now with the sound of trumpets, now of bells,

Tabors,^1 or signals made from castled heights,

And with inventions multiform, our own,

Or introduced from foreign land; but ne'er

To such a strange recorder I beheld,

In evolution moving, horse nor foot,

Nor ship, the tack'd by sign from land or star.

With the ten Demons on our way we went;

Ah, fearful company! but in the church

With saints, with gluttons at the tavern's mess.

Still earnest on the pitch I gazed, to mark

All things whate'er the chasm contain'd, and those

Who burn'd within. As dolphins that, in sign

To mariners, heave high their arched backs,

That thence forewarn'd they may advise to save

Their threaten'd vessel; so, at intervals,

To ease the pain, his back some sinner show'd,

Then hid more nimbly than the lightning - glance.

E'en as the frogs, that of a watery moat

Stand at the brink, with the jaws only out,

Their feet and of the trunk all else conceal'd,

Thus on each part the sinners stood; but soon

As Barbariccia was at hand, so they

Drew back under the wave. I saw, and yet

My heart doth stragger, one, that waited thus,

As it befalls that oft one frog remains,

While the next springs away: and Graffiacan,

Who of the fiends was nearest, grappling seized

His clotted locks, and dragg'd him sprawling up,

That he appear'd to me an otter. Each

Already by their names I knew, so well

When they were chosen I observed, and mark'd

How one the other call'd. "O Rubicant!

See that his hide thou with thy talons flay,"

Shouted together all the cursed crew.

Then I: "Inform thee, Master! if thou may,

What wretched soul is this, on whom their hands

His foes have laid." My leader to his side

Approach'd, and whence he came inquired; to whom

Was answer'd thus: "Born in Navarre's domain,^2

My mother placed me in a lord's retinue:

For she had borne me to a losel vile,

A spendthrift of his substance and himself.

The good King Thibault^3 after that I served:

To peculating here my thoughts were turn'd,

Whereof I give account in this dire heat."

Straight Ciriatto, from whose mouth a tusk

Issued on either side, as from a boar,

Ripp'd him with one of these. 'Twixt evil claws

The mouse had fallen: but Barbariccia cried,

Seizing him with both arms: "Stand thou apart

While I do fix him on my prong transpierced."

Then added, turning to my guide his face,

"Inquire of him, if more thou wish to learn,

Ere he again be rent." My leader thus:

"Then tell us of the partners in thy guilt;

Knowest thou any sprung of Latin land

Under the tar?" "I parted," he replied,

"But now from one, who sojourn'd not far thence;

So were I under shelter now with him,

Nor hook nor talon then should scare me more."

"Too long we suffer," Libicocco cried;

Then, darting forth a prong, seized on his arm,

And mangled bore away the sinewy part.

Him Draghinazzo by his thighs beneath

Would next have caught; whence angrily their chief,

Turning on all sides round, with threatening brow

Restrain'd them. When their strife a little ceased,

Of him, who yet was gazing on his wound,

My teacher thus without delay inquired:

"Who was the spirit, from whom by evil hap

Parting, as thou hast told, thou camest to shore?"

"It was the friar Gomita,"^4 he rejoin'd,

"He of Gallura, vessel of all guile,

Who had his master's enemies in hand,

And used them so that they commend him well.

Money he took, and them at large dismiss'd;

So he reports; and in each other charge

Committed to his keeping play'd the part

Of barterer to the height. With him doth herd

The chief of Logodoro, Michel Zanche.^5

Sardinia is a theme whereof their tongue

Is never weary. Out! alas! behold

That other, how he grins. More would I say,

But tremble lest he mean to maul me sore."

Their captain then to Farfarello turning,

Who roll'd his moony eyes in act to strike,

Rebuked him thus: "Off, cursed bird! avaunt!"

"If ye desire to see or hear," he thus

Quaking with dread resumed, "or Tuscan spirits

Or Lombard, I will cause them to appear.

Meantime let these ill talons bate their fury,

So that no vengeance they may fear from them,

And I, remaining in this self - same place,

Will, for myself but one, make seven appear,

When my shrill whistle shall be heard; for so

Our custom is to call each other up."

Cagnazzo at that word deriding grinn'd,

Then wagg'd the head and spake: "Hear his device,

Mischievous as he is, to plunge him down."

Whereto he thus, who fail'd not in rich store

Of nice - wove toils: "Mischief, forsooth, extreme!

Meant only to procure myself more woe."

No longer Alichino then refrain'd,

But thus, the rest gainsaying, him bespake:

"If thou do cast thee down, I not on foot

Will chase thee, but above the pitch will beat

My plumes. Quit we the vantage ground, and let

The bank be as a shield; that we may see,

If singly thou prevail against us all."

Now, reader, of new sport expect to hear.

They each one turn'd his eyes to the other shore,

He first, who was the hardest to persuade.

The spirit of Navarre chose well his time,

Planted his feet on land, and at one leap

Escaping, disappointed their resolve.

Them quick resentment stung, but him the most

Who was the cause of failure: in pursuit

He therefore sped, exclaiming, "Thou art caught."

But little it avail'd; terror outstripp'd

His following flight; the other plunged beneath,

And he with upward pinion raised his breast:

E'en thus the water - fowl, when she perceives

The falcon near, dives instant down, while he

Enraged and spent retires. That mockery

In Calcabrina fury stirr'd, who flew

After him, with desire of strife inflamed;

And, for the barterer had 'scaped, so turn'd

His talons on his comrade. O'er the dyke

In grapple close they join'd; but the other proved

A goshawk able to rend well his foe;

And in the boiling lake both fell. The heat

Was umpire soon between them; but in vain

To lift themselves they strove, so fast were glued

Their pennons. Barbariccia, as the rest,

That chance lamenting, four in flight despatch'd

From the other coast, with all their weapons arm'd.

They, to their post on each side speedily

Descending, stretch'd their hooks toward the fiends,

Who flounder'd, inly burning from their scars:

And we departing left them to that broil.

[Footnote 1: "Tabour, a drum, a common accompaniment of war, is mentioned as

one of the instruments of martial music in this battle (in Richard Coeur - de

- Lion) with characteristical propriety. It was imported into the European

armies from the Saracens in the holy war." Warton's Hist. of English Poetry,

vi.i. (a) 4, p. 167.]

[Footnote 2: His name is said to be Ciampolo.]

[Footnote 3: "Thibault I, King of Navarre, died on June 8, 1233, as much to be

commended for the desire he showed of aiding the war in the Holy Land, as

reprehensible and faulty for his design of oppressing the rights and

privileges of the Church. Thibault undoubtedly mertis praise, as for his other

endowments, so especially for his cultivation of the liberal arts, his

exercise and knowledge of music and poetry, in which he so much excelled that

he was accustomed to compose verses and sing them to the viol, and to exhibit

his poetical compositions publicly in his palace, that they might be

criticised by all."]

[Footnote 4: He was intrusted by Nino de' Visconti with the government of

Gallura, one of the four jurisdictions of Sardinia. He took a bribe from his

master's enemies and allowed them to escape. See also Canto xxxiii and

Purgatory, Canto viii.]

[Footnote 5: President of Logodoro, of the four Sardinian jurisdictions. See

Canto xxxiii. Note to v. 136.]



     The enraged Demons pursue Dante, but he is preserved from them by Virgil.

On reaching the sixth gulf, he beholds the punishment of the hypocrites; which

is, to pace continually round the gulf under the pressure of caps and hoods,

that are gilt on the outside, but leaden within. He is addressed by two of

these, Catalano and Loderingo, Knights of St. Mary, otherwise called Joyous

Friars of Bologna. Caiaphas is seen fixed to a cross on the ground, and lies

so stretched along the way, that all tread on him in passing.

In silence and in solitude we went,

One first, the other following his steps,

As minor friars journeying on their road.

The present fray had turn'd my thoughts to muse

Upon old Aesop's fable,^1 where he told

What fate unto the mouse and frog befell;

For language hath not sounds more like in sense,

Than are these chances, if the origin

And end of each be heedfully compared.

And as one thought bursts from another forth,

So afterward from that another sprang,

Which added doubly to my former fear.

For thus I reason'd: "These through us have been

So foil'd, with loss and mockery so complete,

As needs must sting them sore. If anger then

Be to their evil will conjoin'd, more fell

They shall pursue us, than the savage hound

Snatches the leveret panting 'twixt his jaws."

Already I perceived my hair stand all

On end with terror, and look'd eager back.

"Teacher," I thus began, "if speedily

Thyself and me thou hide not, much I dread

Those evil talons. Even now behind

They urge us: quick imagination works

So forcibly, that I already feel them."

He answer'd: "Were I form'd of leaded glass,

I should not sooner draw unto myself

Thy outward image, than I now imprint

That from within. This moment came thy thoughts

Presented before mine, with similar act

And countenance similar, so that from both

I one design have framed. If the right coast

Incline so much, that we may thence descend

Into the other chasm, we shall escape

Secure from this imagined pursuit."

He had not spoke his purpose to the end,

When I from far beheld them with spread wings

Approach to take us. Suddenly my guide

Caught me, even as a mother that from sleep

Is by the noise aroused, and near her sees

The climbing fires, who snatches up her babe

And flies ne'er pausing, careful more of him

Than of herself, that but a single vest

Clings round her limbs. Down from the jutting beach

Supine he cast him to that pendent rock,

Which closes on one part the other chasm.

Never ran water with such hurrying pace

Adown the tube to turn a land - mill's wheel,

When nearest it approaches to the spokes,

As then along that edge my master ran,

Carrying me in his bosom, as a child,

Not a companion. Scarcely had his feet

Reach'd to the lowest of the bed beneath,

When over us the steep they reach'd: but fear

In him was none; for that high Providence,

Which placed them ministers of the fifth foss,

Power of departing thence took from them all.

There in the depth we saw a painted tribe,

Who paced with tardy steps around, and wept,

Faint in appearance and o'ercome with toil.

Caps had they on, with hoods, that fell low down

Before their eyes, in fashion like to those

Worn by the monks in Cologne.^2 Their outside

Was overlaid with gold, dazzling to view,

But leaden all within, and of such weight,

That Frederick's^3 compared to these were straw.

Oh, everlasting wearisome attire!

We yet once more with them together turn'd

To leftward, on their dismal moan intent.

But by the weight opprest, so slowly came

The fainting people, that our company

Was changed, at every movement of the step.

Whence I my guide address'd: "See that thou find

Some spirit, whose name may by his deeds be known;

And to that end look round thee as thou go'st."

Then one, who understood the Tuscan voice,

Cried after us aloud: "Hold in your feet,

Ye who so swiftly speed through the dusk air.

Perchance from me thou shalt obtain thy wish."

Whereat my leader, turning, me bespake:

"Pause, and then onward at their pace proceed."

I staid, and saw two spirits in whose look

Impatient eagerness of mind was mark'd

To overtake me; but the load they bare

And narrow path retarded their approach.

Soon as arrived, they with an eye askance

Perused me, but spake not: then turning, each

To other thus conferring said: "This one

Seems, by the action of his throat, alive;

And, be they dead, what privilege allows

They walk unmantled by the cumbrous stole?"

Then thus to me: "Tuscan, who visitest

The college of the mourning hypocrites,

Disdain not to instruct us who thou art."

"By Arno's pleasant stream," I thus replied,

"In the great city I was bred and grew,

And wear the body I have ever worn.

But who are ye, from whom such mighty grief,

As now I witness, courseth down your cheeks?

What torment breaks forth in this bitter woe?"

"Our bonnets gleaming bright with orange hue,"

One of them answer'd, "are so leaden gross,

That with their weight they make the balances

To crack beneath them. Joyous friars^4 we were,

Bologna's natives; Catalano I,

He Loderingo named; and by thy land

Together taken, as men used to take

A single and indifferent arbiter,

To reconcile their strifes. How there we sped,

Gardingo's vicinage^5 can best declare."

"O friars!" I began, "your miseries -"

But there brake off, for one had caught mine eye,

Fix'd to a cross with three stakes on the ground:

He, when he saw me, writhed himself, throughout

Distorted, ruffling with deep sighs his beard.

And Catalano, who thereof was 'ware,

Thus spake: "That pierced spirit,^6 whom intent

Thou view'st, was he who gave the Pharisees

Counsel, that it were fitting for one man

To suffer for the people. He doth lie

Transverse; nor any passes, but him first

Behoves make feeling trial how each weighs.

In straits like this along the foss are placed

The father of his consort,^7 and the rest

Partakers in that council, seed of ill

And sorrow to the Jews." I noted then,

How Virgil gazed with wonder upon him,

Thus abjectly extended on the cross

In banishment eternal. To the friar

He next his words address'd: "We pray ye tell,

If so be lawful, whether on our right

Lies any opening in the rock, whereby

We both may issue hence, without constraint

On the dark angels, that compell'd they come

To lead us from this depth." He thus replied:

"Nearer than thou dost hope, there is a rock

From the great circle moving, which o'ersteps

Each vale of horror, save that here his cope

Is shatter'd. By the ruin ye may mount:

For on the side it slants, and most the height

Rises below." With head bent down awhile

My leader stood; then spake: "He warn'd us ill,

Who yonder hangs the sinners on his hook."

To whom the friar: "At Bologna erst

I many vices of the Devil heard;

Among the rest was said, 'He is a liar,

And the father of lies!'" When he had spoke,

My leader with large strides proceeded on,

Somewhat disturb'd with anger in his look.

I therefore left the spirits heavy laden,

And, following, his beloved footsteps mark'd.

[Footnote 1: "Aesop's fable." The fable of the frog, who offered to carry the

mouse across a ditch, with the intention of drowning him, when both were

carried off by a kite. It is not among those Greek fables which go under the

name of Aesop.]

[Footnote 2: They wore unusually large cowls.]

[Footnote 3: The Emperor Frederick II is said to have punished those who were

guilty of high treason by wrapping them up in lead and casting them into a


[Footnote 4: "Joyous friars." "Those who ruled the city of Florence on the

part of the Ghibellines perceiving this discontent and murmuring, which they

were fearful might produce a rebellion against themselves, in order to satisfy

the people, made choice of two knights, Frati Gaudenti (joyous friars) of

Bologna, on whom they conferred the chief power in Florence; one named M.

Catalano de' Malavolti, the other M. Loderingo di Liandolo; one an adherent of

the Guelf, the other of the Ghibelline party. It is to be remarked, that the

Joyous Friars were called Knights of St. Mary, and became knights on taking

that habit: their robes were white, the mantle sable, and the arms a white

field and red cross with two stars: their office was to defend widows and

orphans, they were to act as mediators; they had internal regulations, like

other religious bodies. The above - mentioned M. Loderingo was the founder of

that order. But it was not long before they too well deserved the appellation

given them, and were found to be more bent on enjoying themselves than on any

other object. These two friars were called in by the Florentines, and had a

residence assigned them in the palace belonging to the people, over against

the Abbey. Such was the dependence placed on the character of their order, it

was expected they would be impartial, and would save the commonwealth any

unnecessary expense; instead of which, though inclined to opposite parties,

they secretly and hypocritically concurred in promoting their own advantage

rather than the public good." - G. Villani, b. vii. c. xiii. This happened in


[Footnote 5: The name of that part of the city which was inhabited by the

powerful Ghibelline family of the Uberti, and destroyed under the partial and

iniquitous administration of Catalano and Loderingo.]

[Footnote 6: "That pierced spirit." Caiaphas.]

[Footnote 7: Annas, father - in - law to Caiaphas.]

Canto XXIV


     Under the escort of his faithful master, Dante not without difficulty

makes his way out of the sixth gulf; and in the seventh, sees the robbers

tormented by venomous and pestilent serpents. The soul of Vanni Fucci, who had

pillaged the sacristy of St. James in Pistoia, predicts some calamities that

impended over that city, and over the Florentines.

In the year's early nonage,^1 when the sun

Tempers his tresses in Aquarius' urn,

And now toward equal day the nights recede;

Whenas the rime upon the earth puts on

Her dazzling sister's image, but not long

Her milder sway endures; then riseth up

The village hind, whom fails his wintry store,

And looking out beholds the plain around

All whiten'd; whence impatiently he smites

His thighs, and to his hut returning in,

There paces to and fro, wailing his lot,

As a discomfited and helpless man;

Then comes he forth again, and feels new hope

Spring in his bosom, finding e'en thus soon

The world hath changed its countenance, grasps his crook,

And forth to pasture drives his little flock:

So me my guide dishearten'd, when I saw

His troubled forehead; and so speedily

That ill was cured; for at the fallen bridge

Arriving, toward me with a look as sweet,

He turn'd him back, as that I first beheld

At the steep mountain's foot. Regarding well

The ruin, and some counsel first maintain'd

With his own thought, he opened wide his arm

And took me up. As one, who, while he works,

Computes his labor's issue, that he seems

Still to foresee the effect; so lifting me

Up to the summit of one peak, he fix'd

His eye upon another. "Grapple that,"

Said he, "but first make proof, if it be such

As will sustain thee." For one capt with lead

This were no journey. Scarcely he, though light,

And I, though onward push'd from crag to crag,

Could mount. And if the precinct of this coast

Were not less ample than the last, for him

I know not, but my strength had surely fail'd.

But Malebolge all toward the mouth

Inclining of the nethermost abyss,

The site of every valley hence requires,

That one side upward slope, the other fall.

At length the point from whence the utmost stone

Juts down, we reach'd; soon as to that arrived,

So was the breath exhausted from my lungs

I could no further, but did seat me there.

"Now needs thy best of man;" so spake my guide:

"For not on downy plumes, nor under shade

Of canopy reposing, fame is won;

Without which whosoe'r consumes his days,

Leaveth such vestige of himself on earth,

As smoke in air or foam upon the wave.

Thou therefore rise: vanquish thy weariness

By the mind's effort, in each struggle form'd

To vanquish, if she suffer not the weight

Of her corporeal frame to crush her down.

A longer ladder yet remains to scale.

From these to have escaped sufficeth not,

If well thou note me, profit by my words."

I straightway rose, and show'd myself less spent

That I in truth did feel me. "On," I cried,

"For I am stout and fearless." Up the rock

Our way we held, more rugged than before,

Narrower, and steeper far to climb. From talk

I ceased not, as we journey'd, so to seem

Least faint; whereat a voice from the other foss

Did issue forth, for utterance suited ill.

Though on the arch that crosses there I stood,

What were the words I knew not, but who spake

Seem'd moved in anger. Down I stoop'd to look;

But my quick eye might reach not to the depth

For shrouding darkness; wherefore thus I spake:

"To the next circle, teacher, bend thy steps,

And from the wall dismount we; for as hence

I hear and understand not, so I see

Beneath, and naught discern." "I answer not,"

Said he, "but by the deed. To fair request

Silent performance maketh best return."

We from the bridge's head descended, where

To the eighth mound it joins; and then, the chasm

Opening to view, I saw a crowd within

Of serpents terrible, so strange of shape

And hideous, that remembrance in my veins

Yet shrinks the vital current. Of her sands

Let Libya vaunt no more: if Jaculus,

Pareas and Chelyder be her brood,

Cenchris and Amphisbaena, plagues so dire

Or in such numbers swarming ne'er she show'd,

Not with all Ethiopia, and whate'er

Above the Erythraean sea is spawn'd.

Amid this dread exuberance of woe

Ran naked spirits wing'd with horrid fear,

Nor hope had they of crevice where to hide,

Or heliotrope to charm them out of view.

With serpents were their hands behind them bound,

Which through their reins infix'd the tail and head,

Twisted in folds before. And lo! on one

Near to our side, darted an adder up,

And, where the neck is on the shoulders tied,

Transpierced him. Far more quickly than e'er pen

Wrote O or I, he kindled, burn'd, and changed

To ashes all, pour'd out upon the earth.

When there dissolved he lay, the dust again

Uproll'd spontaneous, and the self - same form

Instant resumed. So mighty sages tell,

The Arabian Phoenix, when five hundred years

Have well - nigh circled, dies, and springs forthwith

Renascent: blade nor herb throughout his life

He tastes, but tears of frankincense alone

And odorous amomum: swaths of nard

And myrrh his funeral shroud. As one that falls,

He knows not how, by force demoniac dragg'd

To earth, or through obstruction fettering up

In chains invisible the powers of man,

Who, risen from his trance, gazeth around,

Bewilder'd with the monstrous agony

He hath endured, and wildly staring sighs;

So stood aghast the sinner when he rose.

Oh! how severe God's judgment, that deals out

Such blows in stormy vengeance. Who he was,

My teacher next inquired; and thus in few

He answer'd: "Vanni Fucci^2 am I call'd,

Not long since rained down from Tuscany

To this dire gullet. Me the bestial life

And not the human pleased, mule that I was,

Who in Pistoia found my worthy den."

I then to Virgil: "Bid him stir not hence;

And ask what crime did thrust him thither: once

A man I knew him, choleric and bloody."

The sinner heard and feign'd not, but toward me

His mind directing and his face, wherein

Was dismal shame depictured, thus he spake:

"It grieves me more to have been caught by thee

In this sad plight, which thou beholdest, than

When I was taken from the other life.

I have no power permitted to deny

What thou inquirest. I am doom'd thus low

To dwell, for that the sacristy by me

Was rifled of its goodly ornaments,

And with the guilt another falsely charged.

But that thou mayst not joy to see me thus,

So as thou e'er shalt 'scape this darksome realm,

Open thine ears and hear what I forebode.

Reft of the Neri first Pistoia^3 pines;

Then Florence^4 changeth citizens and laws;

From Valdimagra,^5 drawn by wrathful Mars,

A vapor rises, wrapt in turbid mists,

And sharp and eager driveth on the storm

With Arrowy hurtling o'er Piceno's field,

Whence suddenly the cloud shall burst, and strike

Each helpless Bianco prostrate to the ground.

This have I told, that grief may rend thy heart."

[Footnote 1: At the latter part of January, when the sun enters Aquarius, and

the equinox draws near, when the hoar - frosts in the morning often wear the

appearance of snow, but are melted by the rising sun."]

[Footnote 2: Said to have been an illegitimate offspring of the family of

Lazari in Pistoia, to have robbed the sacristy of the church of St. James in

that city, and to have charged Vanni della Nona with the sacrilege; in

consequence of which the latter suffered death.]

[Footnote 3: "In May, 1301, the Bianchi party of Pistoia, with the help of the

Bianchi who ruled Florence, drove out the party of the Neri from the former

place, destroying their houses, palaces, and farms."]

[Footnote 4: "Then Florence." "Soon after the Bianchi wbll be expelled from

Florence, the Neri will prevail, and the laws and people will be changed."]

[Footnote 5: Alluding to the victory obtained by the Marquis Morello Malaspina

of Valdimagra, who put himself at the head of the Neri, and defeated their

opponents the Bianchi, in the Campo Piceno near Pistoia, soon after the

occurrence related in the preceding note on v. 142. Currado Malaspina is

introduced in the eighth Canto of the Purgatory; where it appears, that

although on the present occasion they espoused contrary sides, most important

favors were nevertheless conferred by that family on our Poet, at a subsequent

period of his exile, in 1307.]

Canto XXV


     The sacrilegious Fucci vents his fury in blasphemy, is seized by

serpents, and flying is pursued by Cacus in the form of a Centaur, who is

described with a swarm of serpents on his haunch, and a dragon on his

shoulders breathing forth fire. Our Poet then meets with the spirits of three

of his countrymen, two of whom undergo a marvelous transformation in his


When he had spoke, the sinner raised his hands^1

Pointed in mockery and cried" "Take them,


I level them at thee." From that day forth

The serpents were my friends; for round his neck

One of them rolling twisted, as it said,

"Be silent, tongue!" Another, to his arms

Upgliding, tied them, riveting itself

So close, it took from them the power to move.

Pistoia! ah, Pistoia! why dost doubt

To turn thee into ashes, cumbering earth

No longer, since in evil act so far

Thou hast outdone thy seed? I did not mark,

Through all the gloomy circles of the abyss,

Spirit, that swell'd so proudly' gainst his God;

Not him,^2 who headlong fell from Thebes. He fled,

Nor utter'd more; and after him there came

A Centaur full of fury, shouting, "Where,

Where is the caitiff?" On Maremma's marsh^3

Swarm not the serpent tribe, as on his haunch

They swarm'd, to where the human face begins.

Behind his head, upon the shoulders, lay

With open wings a dragon, breathing fire

On whomsoe'er he met. To me my guide:

"Cacus is this, who underneath the rock

Of Aventine spread oft a lake of blood.

He, from his brethren parted, here must tread

A different journey, for his fraudful theft

Of the great herd that near him stall'd; whence found

His felon deeds their end, beneath the mace

Of stout Alcides, that perchance laid on

A hundred blows, and not the tenth was felt."

While yet he spake, the Centaur sped away:

And under us three spirits came, of whom

Nor I nor he was ware, till they exclaim'd,

"Say who are ye!" We then brake off discourse,

Intent on these alone. I knew them not:

But, as it chanceth oft, befell that one

Had need to name another. "Where," said he,

"Doth Cianfa^4 lurk?" I, for a sign my guide

Should stand attentive, placed against my lips

The finger lifted. If, O reader! now

Thou be not apt to credit what I tell,

No marvel; for myself do scarce allow

The witness of mine eyes. But as I look'd

Toward them, lo! a serpent with six feet

Springs forth on one, and fastens full upon him:

His midmost grasp'd the belly, a forefoot

Seized on each arm (while deep in either cheek

He flesh'd his fangs); the hinder on the thighs

Were spread, 'twixt which the tail inserted curl'd

Upon the reins behind. Ivy ne'er clasp'd

A dodder'd oak, as round the other's limbs

The hideous monster intertwined his own.

Then, as they both had been of burning wax,

Each melted into other, mingling hues,

That which was either now was seen no more.

Thus up the shrinking paper, ere it burns,

A brown tint glides, not turning yet to black,

And the clean white expires. The other two

Look'd on exclaiming, "Ah! how dost thou change,

Agnello!^5 See! Thou art nor double now,

Nor only one." The two heads now became

One, and two figures blended in one form

Appear'd, where both were lost. Of the four lengths

Two arms were made: the belly and the chest,

The thighs and legs, into such members changed

As never eye hath seen. Of former shape

All trace was vanish'd. Two, yet neither, seem'd

That image miscreate, and so pass'd on

With tardy steps. As underneath the scourge

Of the fierce dog - star that lays bare the fields,

Shifting from brake to brake the lizard seems

A flash of lightning, if he thwart the road;

So toward the entrails of the other two

Approaching seem'd an adder all on fire,

As the dark pepper - grain livid and swart.

In that part, whence our life is nourish'd first,

Once he transpierced; then down before him fell

Stretch'd out. The pierced spirit look'd on him,

But spake not; yea, stood motionless and yawn'd,

As if by sleep or feverous fit assail'd.

He eyed the serpent, and the serpent him.

One from the wound, the other from the mouth

Breathed a thick smoke, whose vapory columns join'd.

Lucan in mute attention now may hear,

Nor thy disastrous fate, Sabellus, tell,

Nor thine, Nasidius. Ovid now be mute.

What if in warbling fiction he record

Cadmus and Arethusa, to a snake

Him changed, and her into a fountain clear,

I envy not; for never face to face

Two natures thus transmuted did he sing,

Wherein both shapes were ready to assume

The other's substance. They in mutual guise

So answer'd that the serpent split his train

Divided to a fork, and the pierced spirit

Drew close his steps together, legs and thighs

Compacted, that no sign of juncture soon

Was visible: the tail, disparted, took

The figure which the spirit lost; its skin

Softening, his indurated to a rind.

The shoulders next I mark'd, that entering join'd

The monster's arm - pits, whose two shorter feet

So lengthen'd, as the others dwindling shrunk.

The feet behind then twisting up became

That part that man conceals, which in the wretch

Was cleft in twain. While both the shadowy smoke

With a new color veils, and generates

The excrescent pile on one, peeling it off

From the other body, lo! upon his feet

One upright rose, and prone the other fell.

Nor yet their glaring and malignant lamps

Were shifted, though each feature changed beneath.

Of him who stood erect, the mounting face

Retreated toward the temples, and what there

Superfluous matter came, shot out in ears

From the smooth cheeks; the rest, not backward dragg'd,

Of its excess did shape the nose; and swell'd

Into due size protuberant the lips.

He, on the earth who lay, meanwhile extends

His sharpen'd visage, and draws down the ears

Into the head, as doth the slug his horns.

His tongue, continuous before and apt

For utterance, severs; and the other's fork

Closing unites. That done, the smoke was laid.

The soul, transform'd into the brute, glides off,

Hissing along the vale, and after him

The other talking sputters; but soon turn'd

His new - grown shoulders on him, and in few

Thus to another spake: "Along this path

Crawling, as I have done, speed Buoso now!"

So saw I fluctuate in successive change

The unsteady ballast of the seventh hold:

And here if aught my pen have swerved, events

So strange may be its warrant. O'er mine eyes

Confusion hung, and on my thoughts amaze.

Yet 'scaped they not so covertly, but well

I mark'd Sciancato: he alone it was

Of the three first that came, who changed not: tho'

The other's fate, Gaville! still dost rue.

[Footnote 1: "The practice of thrusting out the thumb between the first and

second fingers, to express the feelings of insult and contempt, has prevailed

very generally among the nations of Europe, and for many ages had been

denominated 'making the fig,' or described at least by some equivalent

expression." - Douce's "Illustrations of Shakespeare," vol. i. p. 492, ed.


[Footnote 2: Capaneus. Canto xiv.]

[Footnote 3: Near the Tuscan shore.]

[Footnote 4: Said to have been of the family of Donati at Florence.]

[Footnote 5: "Agnello." Agnello Brunelleschi.]

Canto XXVI


     Remounting by the steps, down which they have descended to the seventh

gulf, they go forward to the arch that stretches over the eighth, and from

thence behold numberless flames wherein are punished the evil counsellors,

each flame containing a sinner, save one, in which were Diomede and Ulysses,

the latter of whom relates the manner of his death.

Florence, exult! for thou so mightily

Hast thriven, that o'er land and sea thy wings

Thou beatest, and thy name spreads over hell.

Among the plunderers, such the three I found

Thy citizens; whence shame to me thy son,

And no proud honour to thyself redounds.

But if our minds, when dreaming near the dawn,

Are of the truth presageful, thou ere long

Shalt feel what Prato^1 (not to say the rest)

Would fain might come upon thee; and that chance

Were in good time, if it befell thee now.

Would so it were, since it must needs befall!

For as time wears me, I shall grieve the more.

We from the depth departed; and my guide

Remounting scaled the flinty steps, which late

We downward traced, and drew me up the steep.

Pursuing thus our solitary way

Among the crags and splinters of the rock,

Sped not our feet without the help of hands.

Then sorrow seized me, which e'en now revives,

As my thought turns again to what I saw,

And, more than I am wont, I rein and curb

The powers of nature in me, lest they run

Where Virtue guides not; that, if aught of good

My gentle star or something better gave me,

I envy not myself the precious boon.

As in that season, when the sun least veils

His face that lightens all, what time the fly

Gives way to the shrill gnat, the peasant then,

Upon some cliff reclined, beneath him sees

Fire - flies innumerous spangling o'er the vale,

Vineyard or tilth, where his day - labor lies;

With flames so numberless throughout its space

Shone the eighth chasm, apparent, when the depth

Was to my view exposed. As he, whose wrongs

The bears avenged, as its departure saw

Elijah's chariot, when the steeds erect

Raised their steep flight for heaven; his eyes meanwhile,

Straining pursued them, till the flame alone,

Upsoaring like a misty speck, he kenn'd:

E'en thus along the gulf moves every flame,

A sinner so enfolded close in each,

That none exhibits token of the theft.

Upon the bridge I forward bent to look

And grasp'd a flinty mass, or else had fallen,

Though push'd not from the height. The guide, who mark'd

How I did gaze attentive, thus began:

"Within these ardours are the spirits; each

Swatched in confining fire." "Master! thy word,"

I answer'd, "hath assured me; yet I deem'd

Already of the truth, already wish'd

To ask thee who is in yon fire, that comes

So parted at the summit, as it seem'd

Ascending from that funeral pile^2 where lay

The Theban brothers." He replied: "Within,

Ulysses there and Diomede endure

Their penal tortures, thus to vengeance now

Together hasting, as erewhile to wrath

These in the flame with ceaseless groans deplore

The ambush of the horse,^3 that open'd wide

A portal for the goodly seed to pass,

Which sow'd imperial Rome; nor less the guile

Lament they, whence, of her Achilles 'reft,

Deidamia yet in death complains.

And there is rued the stratagem that Troy

Of her Palladium spoil'd" - "If they have power

Of utterance from within these sparks," said I,

"O master! think my prayer a thousand - fold

In repetition urged, that thou vouchsafe

To pause till here the horned flame arrive.

See, how toward it with desires I bend."

He thus: "Thy prayer is worthy of much praise,

And I accept it therefore; but do thou

Thy tongue refrain: to question them be mine;

For I divine thy wish: and they perchance,

For they were Greeks,^4 might shun discourse with thee."

When there the flame had come, where time and place

Seem'd fitting to my guide, he thus began:

"O ye, who dwell two spirits in one fire!

If, living, I of you did merit aught,

Whate'er the measure were of that desert,

When in the world my lofty strain I pour'd,

Move ye not on, till one of you unfold

In what clime death o'ertook him self - destroy'd."

Of the old flame forthwith the greater horn

Began to roll, murmuring, as a fire

That labors with the wind, then to and fro

Wagging the top, as a tongue uttering sounds,

Threw out its voice, and spake: "When I escaped

From Circe, who beyond a circling year

Had held me near Caieta by her charms,

Ere thus Aeneas yet had named the shore;

Nor fondness for my son, nor reverence

Of my old father, nor return of love,

That should have crown'd Penelope with joy,

Could overcome in me the zeal I had

To explore the world, and search the ways of life,

Man's evil and his virtue. Forth I sail'd

Into the deep illimitable main,

With but one bark, and the small faithful band

That yet cleaved to me. As Iberia far,

Far as Marocco, either shore I saw,

And the Sardinian and each isle beside

Which round that ocean bathes. Tardy with age

Were I and my companions, when we came

To the strait pass,^5 where Hercules ordain'd

The boundaries not to be o'erstepp'd by man.

The walls of Seville to my right I left,

On the other hand already Ceuta past.

'O brothers!' I began, 'who to the west

Through perils without number now have reach'd;

To this the short remaining watch, that yet

Our senses have to wake, refuse not proof

Of the unpeopled world, following the track

Of Phoebus. Call to mind from whence ye sprang:

Ye were not form'd to live the life of brutes,

But virtue to pursue and knowledge high.'

With these few words I sharpen'd for the voyage

The mind of my associates, that I then

Could scarcely have withheld them. To the dawn

Our poop we turn'd, and for the witless flight

Made our oars wings, still gaining on the left.

Each star of the other pole night now beheld,

And ours so low, that from the ocean floor

It rose not. Five times reillumed, as oft

Vanish'd the light from underneath the moon,

Since the deep way we enter'd, when from far

Appear'd a mountain dim,^6 loftiest methought

Of all I e'er beheld. Joy seized us straight;

But soon to mourning changed. From the new land

A whirlwind sprung, and at her foremost side

Did strike the vessel. Thrice it whirl'd her round

With all the waves; the fourth time lifted up

The poop, and sank the prow: so fate decreed:

And over us the booming billow closed."^7

[Footnote 1: "Shalt feel what Prato." The Poet prognosticates the calamities

which were soon to befall his native city, and which, he says, even her

nearest neighbor, Prato, would wish her. The calamities more particularly

pointed at are said to be the fall of a wooden bridge over the Arno, in May,

1304, where a large multitude were assembled to witness a representation of

hell and the infernal torments, in consequence of which accident many lives

were lost; and a conflagration, that in the following month destroyed more

than 1,700 houses. See G. Villani, Hist. lib. viii. c. lxx. and lxxi.]

[Footnote 2: The flame is said to have divided the bodies of Eteocles and

Polynices, as if conscious of the enmity that actuated them while living.]

[Footnote 3: The wooden horse that caused Aeneas to quit Troy and seek his

fortune in Italy, where his descendants founded Rome.]

[Footnote 4: Perhaps implying arrogance.]

[Footnote 5: The Strait of Gibraltar.]

[Footnote 6: The mountain of Purgatory. - Among various opinions respecting

the situation of the terrestrial paradise, Peitro Lombardo relates, that "it

was separated by a long space, either of sea or land, from the regions

inhabited by men, and placed in the ocean, reaching as far as to the luner

circle, so that the waters of the deluge did not reach it." - Sent. lib. ii.

dist. 17.]

[Footnote 7: "Closed." Venturi refers to Pliny and Solinus for the opinion

that Ulysses was the founder of Lisbon, from whence he thinks it was easy for

the fancy of a poet to send him on yet further enterprises. The story (which

it is not unlikely that our author borrowed from some legend of the Middle

Ages) may have taken its rise partly from the obscure oracle returned by the

ghost of Tiresias to Ulysses (eleventh book of the Odyssey), and partly from

the fate which there was reason to suppose had befallen some adventurous

explorers of the Atlantic Ocean.]



     The Poet, treating of the same punishment as in the last Canto, relates

that he turned toward a flame in which was the Count Guido da Montefeltro,

whose inquiries respecting the state of Romagna he answers; and Guido is

thereby induced to declare who he is, and why condemned to that torment.

Now upward rose the flame, and still'd its light

To speak no more, and now pass'd on with leave

From the mild poet gain'd; when following came

Another, from whose top a sound confused,

Forth issuing, drew our eyes that way to look.

As the Sicilian bull,^1 that rightfully

His cries first echoed who had shaped its mould,

Did so rebellow, with the voice of him

Tormented, that the brazen monster seem'd

Pierced through with pain; thus, while no way they found,

Nor avenue immediate through the flame,

Into its language turn'd the dismal words:

But soon as they had won their passage forth,

Up from the point, which vibrating obey'd

Their motion at the tongue, these sounds were heard:

"O thou! to whom I now direct my voice,

That lately didst exclaim in Lombard phrase,

'Depart thou; I solicit thee no more;'

Though somewhat tardy I perchance arrive,

Let it not irk thee here to pause awhile,

And with me parley: lo! it irks not me,

And yet I burn. If but e'en now thou fall

Into this blind world, from that pleasant land

Of Latium, whence I draw my sum of guilt,

Tell me if those who in Romagna dwell

Have peace or war. For of the mountains there^2

Was I, betwixt Urbino and the height

Whence Tiber first unlocks his mighty flood."

Leaning I listen'd yet with heedful ear,

When, as he touch'd my side, the leader thus:

"Speak thou: he is a Latian." My reply

Was ready, and I spake without delay:

"O spirit! who art hidden here below,

Never was thy Romagna without war

In her proud tyrants' bosoms, nor is now:

But open war there left I none. The state,

Ravenna hath maintain'd this many a year,

Is steadfast. There Polenta's eagle^3 broods;

And in his broad circumference of plume

O'ershadows Cervia. The green talons grasp

The land,^4 that stood erewhile the proof so long

And piled in bloody heap the host of France.

"The old mastiff of Verrucchio and the young,^5

That tore Montagna^6 in their wrath, still make,

Where they are wont, an augre of their fangs.

"Lamone's city, and Santerno's,^7 range

Under the lion of the snowy lair,^8

Inconstant partisan, that changeth sides,

Or ever summer yields to winter's frost.

And she, whose flank is wash'd of Savio's wave,^9

As 'twixt the level and the steep she lies,

Lives so 'twixt tyrant power and liberty.

"Now tell us, I entreat thee, who art thou:

Be not more hard than others. In the world,

So may thy name still rear its forehead high."

Then roar'd awhile the fire, its sharpen'd point

On either side waved, and thus breathed at last:

"If I did think my answer were to one

Who ever could return unto the world,

This flame should rest unshaken. But since ne'er,

If true be told me, any from this depth

Has found his upward way, I answer thee,

Nor fear lest infamy record the words.

"A man of arms^10 at first, I clothed me then

In good Saint Francis' girdle, hoping so

To have made amends. And certainly my hope

Had fail'd not, but that he, whom curses light on,

The high priest,^11 again seduced me into sin.

And how, and wherefore, listen while I tell.

Long as this spirit moved the bones and pulp

My mother gave me, less my deeds bespake

The nature of the lion than the fox.

All ways of winding subtlety I knew,

And with such art conducted, that the sound

Reach'd the world's limit. Soon as to that part

Of life I found me come, and when each behoves

To lower sails and gather in the lines;

That, which before had pleased me, then I rued,

And to repentance and confession turn'd,

Wretch that I was; and well it had bestead me.

The chief of the new Pharisees^12 meantime,

Waging his warfare near the Lateran,

Not with the Saracens or Jews (his foes

All Christians were, nor against Acre one

Had fought,^13 nor traffick'd in the Soldan's land),

He, his great charge nor sacred ministry,

In himself reverenced, nor in me that cord

Whsch used to mark with leanness whom it girded.

As in Soracte, Constantine besought,

To cure his leprosy, Sylvester's aid;

So me, to cure the fever of his pride,

This man besought: my counsel to that end

He ask'd; and I was silent; for his words

Seem'd drunken: but forthwith he thus resumed:

'From thy heart banish fear: of all offence

I hitherto absolve thee. In return,

Teach me my purpose so to execute,

That Penestrino cumber earth no more.

Heaven, as thou knowest, I have power to shut

And open: and the keys are therefore twain,

The which my predecessor^14 meanly prized.'

"Then, yielding to the forceful arguments,

Of silence, as more perilous I deem'd,

And answer'd: 'Father! since thou washest me

Clear of that guilt wherein I now must fall,

Large promise with performance scant, be sure,

Shall make thee triumph in thy lofty seat.'

"When I was number'd with the dead, then came

Saint Francis for me; but a cherub dark

He met, who cried, 'Wrong me not; he is mine,

And must below to join the wretched crew,

For the deceitful counsel which he gave.

E'er since I watch'd him, hovering at his hair.

No power can the impenitent absolve;

Nor to repent, and will, at once consist,

By contradiction absolute forbid.'

Oh misery! how I shook myself, when he

Seized me, and cried, "Thou haply thought'st me not

A disputant in logic so exact!'

To Minos down he bore me; and the judge

Twined eight times round his callous back the tail,

Which biting with excess of rage, he spake:

'This is a guilty soul, that in the fire

Must vanish.' Hence, perdition - doom'd, I rove

A prey to rankling sorrow, in this garb."

When he had thus fulfill'd his words, the flame

In dolour parted, beating to and fro,

And writhing its sharp horn. We onward went,

I and my leader, up along the rock,

Far as another arch, that overhangs

The foss, wherein the penalty is paid

Of those who load them with committed sin.

[Footnote 1: The engine of torture invented by Perillus, for the tyrant


[Footnote 2: Montefeltro.]

[Footnote 3: Polenta's eagle." Guido Novello da Polenta, who bore an eagle for

his coat - of - arms. The name of Polenta was derived from a castle so called

in the neighborhood of Brittonoro. Cervia is a small maritime city, about

fifteen miles to the south of Ravenna. Guido was the son of Ostasio da

Polenta, and made himself master of Ravenna in 1265. In 1322 he was deprived

of his sovereignty, and died at Bologna in 1323. This last and most munificent

patron of Dante is enumerated among the poets of his time.]

[Footnote 4: The territory of Forli, the inhabitants of which, in 1282, were

enabled, by the stratagem of Guido da Montefeltro, the governor, to defeat the

French army by which it had been besieged. See G. Villani, lib. vii. c. lxxxi.

The Poet informs Guido, its former ruler, that it is now in the possession of

Sinibaldo Ordolaffi, whom he designates by his coat - of - arms, a lion vert.]

[Footnote 5: Malatesta and Malatestino his son, lords of Rimini, called from

their ferocity, the mastiffs of Verrucchio, which was the name of their

castle. Malatestino was, perhaps, the husband of Francesca, daughter of Guido

da Polenta. See notes to Canto v. 113.]

[Footnote 6: Montagna de' Parcitati, a noble and leader of the Ghibelline

party at Rimini, murdered by Malatestino.]

[Footnote 7: Lamone is the river at Faenza, and Santerno at Imola.]

[Footnote 8: Machinardo Pagano, whose arms were a lion azure on a field

argent. See also Purgatory, Canto xiv. 122]

[Footnote 9: Cesena, situated at the foot of a mountain, and washed by the

river Savio, that often descends with a swollen and rapid stream from the


[Footnote 10: Guido da Montefeltro.]

[Footnote 11: Boniface VIII.]

[Footnote 12: Boniface, VIII, whose enmity to the family of Colonna prompted

him to destroy their houses near the Lateran. Wishing to obtain possession of

their other seat, Penestrino, he consulted with Guido da Montefeltro, offering

him absolution for his past sins, as well as for that which he was then

tempting him to commit. Guido's advice was that kind words and fair promises

would put his enemies into his power; and they accordingly soon afterward fell

into the snare laid for them, 1298.]

[Footnote 13: Alluding to the renegade Christians, by whom the Saracens, in

April, 1291, were assisted to recover St. John d'Acre, the last possession of

the Christians in the Holy Land.]

[Footnote 14: Celestine V. See notes to Canto iii]



     They arrive in the ninth gulf, where the sowers of scandal, schismatics,

and heretics, are seen with their limbs maimed or divided in different ways.

Among these the Poet finds Mohammed, Piero da Medicina, Curio, Mosca, and

Bertrand de Born.

Who, e'en in words unfetter'd, might at full

Tell of the wounds and blood that now I saw,

Though he repeated oft the tale? No tongue

So vast a theme could equal, speech and thought

Both impotent alike. If in one band

Collected, stood the people all, who e'er

Pour'd on Apulia's happy soil their blood,

Slain by the Trojans, and in that long war,^1

When of the rings the measured booty made

A pile so high, as Rome's historian writes

Who errs not; with the multitude, that felt

The griding force of Guiscard's Norman steel,^2

And those the rest,^3 whose bones are gather'd yet

At Ceperano, there where treachery

Branded the Apulian name, or where beyond

Thy walls, O Tagliacozzo,^4 without arms

The old Alardo conquer'd; and his limbs

One were to show transpierced, another his

Clean lopt away; a spectacle like this

Were but a thing of naught, to the hideous sight

Of the ninth chasm. A rundlet, that hath lost

Its middle or side stave, gapes not so wide

As one I mark'd, torn from the chin throughout

Down to the hinder passage: 'twixt the legs

Dangling his entrails hung, the midriff lay

Open to view, and wretched ventricle,

That turns the englutted aliment to dross.

Whilst eagerly I fix on him my gaze,

He eyed me, with his hands laid his breast bare,

And cried, "Now mark how I do rip me: lo!

How is Mohammed mangled: before me

Walks Ali^5 weeping, from the chin his face

Cleft to the forelock; and the others all,

Whom here thou seest, while they lived, did sow

Scandal and schism, and therefore thus are rent.

A fiend is here behind, who with his sword

Hacks us thus cruelly, slivering again

Each of this ream, when we have compast round

The dismal way; for first our gashes close

Ere we repass before him. But, say who

Art thou, that standest musing on the rock,

Haply so lingering to delay the pain

Sentenced upon thy crimes." "Him death not yet,"

My guide rejoin'd, "hath overta'en, nor sin

Conducts to torment; but, that he may make

Full trial of your state, I who am dead

Must through the depths of Hell, from orb to orb

Conduct him. Trust my words; for they are true."

More than a hundred spirits, when that they heard,

Stood in the foss to mark me through amaze

Forgetful of their pangs. "Thou, who perchance

Shalt shortly view the sun, this warning thou

Bear to Dolcino:^6 bid him, if he wish not

Here soon to follow me, that with good store

Of food he arm him, lest imprisoning snows

Yield him a victim to Novara's power;

No easy conquest else": with foot upraised

For stepping, spake Mohammed, on the ground

Then fix'd it to depart. Another shade,

Pierced in the throat, his nostrils mutilate

E'en from beneath the eyebrows, and one ear

Lopt off, who, with the rest, through wonder stood

Gazing, before the rest advanced, and bared

His wind - pipe, that without was all o'ersmear'd

With crimson stain. "O thou!" said he, "whom sin

Condemns not, and whom erst (unless too near

Resemblance do deceive me) I aloft

Have seen on Latian ground, call thou to mind

Piero of Medicina,^7 if again

Returning, thou behold'st the pleasant land^8

That from Vercelli slopes to Marcabo;

And there instruct the twain,^9 whom Fano boasts

Her worthiest sons, Guido and Angelo,

That if 'tis given us here to scan aright

The future, they out of life's tenement

Shall be cast forth, and whelm'd under the waves

Near to Cattolica, through perfidy

Of a fell tyrant. 'Twixt the Cyprian isle

And Balearic, ne'er hath Neptune seen

An injury so foul, by pirates done,

Or Argive crew of old. That one - eyed traitor

(Whose realm there is a spirit here were fain

His eye had still lack'd sight of) them shall bring

To conference with him, then so shape his end

That they shall need not 'gainst Focara's wind^10

Offer up vow nor prayer." I answering thus:

"Declare, as thou dost wish that I above

May carry tidings of thee, who is he,

In whom that sight doth wake such sad remembrance."

Forthwith he laid his hand on the cheek - bone

Of one, his fellow - spirit, and his jaws

Expanding, cried: "Lo! this is he I wot of:

He speaks not for himself: the outcast this,

Who overwhelm'd the doubt in Caesar's mind,^11

Affirming that delay to men prepared

Was ever harmful." Oh! how terrified

Methought was Curio, from whose throat was cut

The tongue, which spake that hardy word. Then one,

Maim'd of each hand, uplifted in the gloom

The bleeding stumps, that they with gory spots

Sullied his face, and cried: "Remember thee

Of Mosca^12 too; I who, alas! exclaim'd,

'The deed once done, there is an end,' that proved

A seed of sorrow to the Tuscan race."

I added: "Ay, and death to thine own tribe."

Whence, heaping woe on woe, he hurried off,

As one grief - stung to madness. But I there

Still linger'd to behold the troop, and saw

Thing, such as I may fear without more proof

To tell of, but that conscience makes me firm,

The boon companion, who her strong breastplate

Buckles on him, that feels no guilt within,

And bids him on and fear not. Without doubt

I saw, and yet it seems to pass before me,

A headless trunk, that even as the rest

Of the sad flock paced onward. By the hair

It bore the sever'd member, lantern - wise

Pendent in hand, which look'd at us, and said,

"Woe's me!" The spirit lighted thus himself;

And two there were in one, and one in two.

How that may be, he knows who ordereth so.

When at the bridge's foot direct he stood,

His arm aloft he rear'd, thrusting the head

Full in our view, that nearer we might hear

The words, which thus it utter'd: "Now behold

This grievous torment, thou, who breathing go'st

To spy the dead: behold, if any else

Be terrible as this. And, that on earth

Thou mayst bear tidings of me, know that I

Am Bertrand,^13 he of Born, who gave King John

The counsel mischievous. Father and son

I set at mutual war. For Absalom

And David more did not Ahitophel,

Spurring them on maliciously to strife.

For parting those so closely knit, my brain

Parted, alas! I carry from its source,

That in this trunk inhabits. Thus the law

Of retribution fiercely works in me."


[Footnote 1: The war of Hannibal in Italy.]

[Footnote 2: Robert Guiscard, conqueror of Naples, died 1110. See Paradise,

Canto xviii.]

[Footnote 3: The army of Manfredi, which, through the treachery of the Apulian

troops, was overcome by Charles of Anjou in 1265. See the Purgatory, Canto


[Footnote 4: "O Tagliacozzo." He alludes to the victory which Charles gained

over Conradino, by the sage advice of the Sieur de Valeri, in 1268.]

[Footnote 5: The disciple of Mohammed.]

[Footnote 6: "Dolcino." In 1305, a friar, called Dolcino, who belonged to no

regular order, contrived to raise in Novara, in Lombardy, a large company of

the meaner sort of people, declaring himself to be a true apostle of Christ

and promulgating a community of property and of wives, with many other such

heretical doctrines. He blamed the Pope, cardinals, and other prelates of the

holy Church, for not observing their duty, nor leading the angelic life, and

affirmed that he ought to be pope. He was followed by more than three thousand

men and women, who lived promiscuously on the mountains together, like beasts,

and, when they wanted provisions, supplied themselves by depredation and

rapine. After two years, many were struck with compunction at the dissolute

life they led, and his sect was much diminished; and, through failure of food

and the severity of the snows, he was taken by the people of Novara, and

burnt, with Margarita, his companion, and many others, whom he had seduced.]

[Footnote 7: "Medicina." A place in the territory of Bologna. Piero fomented

dissensions among the inhabitants of that city, and among the leaders of the

neighboring states.]

[Footnote 8: Lombardy.]

[Footnote 9: "The twain." Guido del Cassero and Angiolello da Cagnano, two of

the worthiest and most distinguished citizens of Fano, were invited by

Malatestino da Rimini to an entertainment, on pretence that he had some

important business to transact with them; and, according to instructions given

by him, they were drowned in their passage near Cattolica, between Rimini and


[Footnote 10: "Focara's wind." Focara is a mountain, from which a wind blows

that is peculiarly dangerous to the navigators of that coast.]

[Footnote 11: "The doubt in Caesar's mind." Curio, whose speech (according to

Lucan) determined Julius Caesar to proceed when he had arrived at Rimini (the

ancient Ariminum), and doubted whether he should prosecute the civil war.]

[Footnote 12: "Mosca." Buondelmonte was engaged to marry a lady of the Amidei

family, but broke his promise, and united himself to one of the Donati. This

was so much resented by the former, that a meeting of themselves and their

kinsmen was held, to consider of the best means of revenging the insult. Mosca

degli Uberti, or de' Lamberti, persuaded them to resolve on the assassination

of Buondelmonte, exclaiming to them, "the thing once done, there is an end."

This counsel and its effects were the source of many terrible calamities to

the State of Florence. "This murder," says G. Villani, lib. v. cap. xxxviii,

"was the cause and beginning of the accursed Guelf and Ghibelline parties in

Florence." It happened in 1215. See the Paradise, Canto xvi. 139.]

[Footnote 13: "Bertrand." Bertrand de Born, Vicomte de Hautefort, near

Perigueux in Guienne, who incited John to rebel against his father, Henry II

of England. Bertrand holds a distinguished place among the Provencal poets.]

Canto XXIX


     Dante, at the desire of Virgil, proceeds onward to the bridge that

crosses the tenth gulf, from whence he hears the cries of the alchemists and

forgers, who are tormented therein; but not being able to discern anything on

account of the darkness, they descend the rock, that bounds this, the last of

the compartments in which the eighth circle is divided, and then behold the

spirits who are afflicted by divers plagues and diseases. Two of them, namely,

Grifolino of Arezzo, and Capocchio of Siena, are introduced speaking.

So were mine eyes inebriate with the view

Of the vast multitude, whom various wounds

Disfigured, that they long'd to stay and weep.

But Virgil roused me: "What yet gazest on?

Wherefore doth fasten yet thy sight below

Among the maim'd and miserable shades?

Thou hast not shown in any chasm beside

This weakness. Know, if thou wouldst number them,

That two and twenty miles the valley winds

Its circuit, and already is the moon

Beneath our feet: the time permitted now

Is short; and more, not seen, remains to see."

"If thou," I straight replied, "hadst weigh'd the cause,

For which I look'd, thou hadst perchance excused

The tarrying still." My leader part pursued

His way, the while I follow'd, answering him,

And adding thus: "Within that cave I deem,

Whereon so fixedly I held my ken,

There is a spirit dwells, one of my blood,

Wailing the crime that costs him now so dear."

Then spake my master: "Let thy soul no more

Afflict itself for him. Direct elsewhere

Its thought, and leave him. At the bridge's foot

I mark'd how he did point with menacing look

At thee, and heard him by the others named

Geri of Bello.^1 Thou so wholly then

Wert busied with his spirit, who once ruled

The towers of Hautefort, that thou lookedst not

That way, ere he was gone." "O guide beloved!

His violent death yet unavenged," said I,

"By any, who are partners in his shame,

Made him contemptuous; therefore, as I think,

He pass'd me speechless by; and, doing so,

Hath made me more compassionate his fate."

So we discoursed to where the rock first show'd

The other valley, had more light been there,

E'en to the lowest depth. Soon as we came

O'er the last cloister in the dismal rounds

Of Malebolge, and the brotherhood

Were to our view exposed, then many a dart

Of sore lament assail'd me, headed all

With points of thrilling pity, that I closed

Both ears against the volley with mine hands.

As were the torment, if each lazar - house

Of Valdichiana,^2 in the sultry time

'Twixt July and September, with the isle

Sardinia and Maremma's pestilent fen,^3

Had heap'd their maladies all in one foss

Together; such was here the torment: dire

The stench, as issuing streams from fester'd limbs.

We on the utmost shore of the long rock

Descended still to leftward. Then my sight

Was livelier to explore the depth, wherein

The minister of the most mighty Lord,

All - searching Justice, dooms to punishment

The forgers noted on her dread record.

More rueful was it not methinks to see

The nation in Aegina^4 droop, what time

Each living thing, e'en to the little worm,

All fell, so full of malice was the air

(And afterward, as bards of yore have told,

The ancient people were restored anew

From seed of emmets), than was here to see

The spirits, that languish'd through the murky vale,

Up - piled on many a stack. Confused they lay,

One o'er the belly, o'er the shoulders one

Roll'd of another; sideling crawl'd a third

Along the dismal pathway. Step by step

We journey'd on, in silence looking round,

And listening those diseased, who strove in vain

To lift their forms. Then two I mark'd, that sat

Propt 'gainst each other, as two brazen pans

Set to retain the heat. From head to foot,

A tetter bark'd them round. Nor saw I e'er

Groom currying so fast, for whom his lord

Impatient waited, or himself perchance

Tired with long watching, as of these each one

Plied quickly his keen nails, through furiousness

Of ne'er abated pruriency. The crust

Came down from underneath, in flakes, like scales

Scraped from the bream, or fish of broader mail.

"O thou! who with thy fingers rendest off

Thy coat of proof," thus spake my guide to one,

"And sometimes makest tearing pincers of them,

Tell me if any born of Latian land

Be among these within: so may thy nails

Serve thee for everlasting to this toil."

"Both are of Latium," weeping he replied,

"Whom tortured thus thou seest: but who art thou

That hast inquired of us?" To whom my guide:

"One that descend with this man, who yet lives,

From rock to rock, and show him Hell's abyss."

Then started they asunder, and each turn'd

Trembling toward us, with the rest, whose ear

Those words redounding struck. To me my liege

Address'd him: "Speak to them whate'er thou list."

And I therewith began: "So may no time

Filch your remembrance from the thoughts of men

In the upper world, but after many suns

Survive it, as ye tell me, who ye are,

And of what race ye come. Your punishment,

Unseemly and disgustful in its kind,

Deter you not from opening thus much to me."

"Arezzo was my dwelling,"^5 answer'd one,

"And me Albero of Siena brought

To die by fire: but that, for which I died,

Leads me not here. True is, in sport I told him,

That I had learn'd to wing my flight in air;

And he, admiring much, as he was void

Of wisdom, will'd me to declare to him

The secret of mine art: and only hence,

Because I made him not a Daedalus,

Prevail'd on one supposed his sire to burn me.

But Minos to this chasm, last of the ten,

For that I practised alchemy on earth,

Has doom'd me. Him no subterfuge eludes."

Then to the bard I spake: "Was ever race

Light as Siena's?^6 Sure not France herself

Can show a tribe so frivolous and vain."

The other leprous spirit heard my words,

And thus return'd: "Be Stricca^7 from this charge

Exempted, he who knew so temperately

To lay out fortune's gifts; and Niccolo,

Who first the spice's costly luxury

Discover'd in that garden,^8 where such seed

Roots deepest in the soil; and be that troop

Exempted, with whom Caccia of Asciano

Lavish'd his vineyards and wide - spreading woods,

And his rare wisdom Abbagliato show'd

A spectacle for all. That thou mayst know

Who seconds thee against the Sienese

Thus gladly, bend this way thy sharpen'd sight,

That well my face may answer to thy ken;

So shalt thou see I am Capocchio's ghost,^9

Who forged transmuted metals by the power

Of alchemy; and if I scan thee right,

Thou needs must well remember how I aped

Creative nature by my subtle art."

[Footnote 1: "Geri of Bello." A kinsman of the Poet's, who was murdered by one

of the Sacchetti family. His being placed here, may be considered as a proof

that Dante was more impartial in the allotment of his punishments than has

generally been supposed.]

[Footnote 2: The valley through which passes the river Chiana, bounded by

Arezzo, Cortona, Montepulciano, and Chiusi. In the autumn it was formerly

rendered unwholesome by the stagnation of the water, but has since been

drained by the Emperor Leopold II. The Chiana is mentioned as a remarkably

sluggish stream, in the Paradise, Canto xiii. 21.]

[Footnote 3: See note to Canto xxv, v. 18.]

[Footnote 4: "In Aegina." He alludes to the fable of the ants changed into

Myrmidons. - Ovid, Met. lib. vii.]

[Footnote 5: Grifolino of Arezzo, who promised Albero, son of the Bishop of

Siena, that he would teach him the art of flying; and, because he did not keep

his promise, Albero prevailed on his father to have him burnt for a


[Footnote 6: The same imputation is again cast on the Sienese, Purgatory,

Canto xiii, 141.]

[Footnote 7: This is said ironically, Stricca, Niccolo Salimbeni, Caccia of

Asciano, and Abbagliato, or Meo de' Folcacchieri, belonged to a company of

prodigal and luxurious youth in Siena, called the "brigata godereccia."

Niccolo was the inventor of a new manner of using cloves in cookery, and which

was termed the "costuma ricca."]

[Footnote 8: "In that garden." Siena.]

[Footnote 9: Capocchio of Siena who is said to have been a fellow - student of

Dante's, in natural philosophy.]

Canto XXX


     In the same gulf, other kinds of impostors, as those who have

counterfeited the persons of others, or debased the current coin, or deceived

by speech under false pretences, are described as suffering various diseases.

Sinon of Troy and Adamo of Brescia mutually reproach each other with their

several impostures.

What time resentment burn'd in Juno's breast

From Semele against the Theban blood,

As more than once in dire mischance was rued;

Such fatal frenzy seized on Athamas,

That he his spouse beholding with a babe

Laden on either arm, "Spread out," he cried,

"The meshes, that I take the lioness

And the young lions at the pass:" then forth

Stretch'd he his merciless talons, grasping one,

One helpless innocent, Learchus named,

Whom swinging down he dash'd upon a rock;

And with her other burden, self - destroy'd,

The hapless mother plunged. And when the pride

Of all presuming Troy fell from its height,

By fortune overwhelm'd, and the old king

With his realm perish'd; then did Hecuba,

A wretch forlorn and captive, when she saw

Polyxena first slaughter'd, and her son,

Her Polydorus, on the wild sea - beach

Next met the mourner's view, then reft of sense

Did she run barking even as a dog;

Such mighty power had grief to wrench her soul.

But ne'er the Furies, or of Thebes, or Troy,

With such fell cruelty were seen, their goads

Infixing in the limbs of man or beast,

As now two pale and naked ghosts I saw,

That gnarling wildly scamper'd, like the swine

Excluded from his stye. One reach'd Capocchio,

And in the neck - joint sticking deep his fangs,

Dragg'd him, that, o'er the solid pavement rubb'd

His belly stretch'd out prone. The other shape,

He of Arezzo, there left trembling, spake:

"That sprite of air is Schicchi;^1 in like mood

Of random mischief vents he still his spite."

To whom I answering: "Oh! as thou dost hope

The other may not flesh its jaws on thee,

Be patient to inform us, who it is,

Ere it speed hence." - "That is the ancient soul

Of wretched Myrrha," he replied, "who burn'd

With most unholy flame for her own sire,

And a false shape assuming, so perform'd

The deed of sin; e'en as the other there,

That onward passes, dared to counterfeit

Donati's features, to feign'd testament

The seal affixing, that himself might gain,

For his own share, the lady of the herd."

When vanish'd the two furious shades, on whom

Mine eye was held, I turn'd it back to view

The other cursed spirits. One I saw

In fashion like a lute, had but the groin

Been sever'd where it meets the forked part.

Swoln dropsy, disproportioning the limbs

With ill - converted moisture, that the paunch

Suits not the visage, open'd wide his lips,

Gasping as in the hectic man for drought,

One toward the chin, the other upward curl'd.

"O ye! who in this world of misery,

Wherefore I know not, are exempt from pain,"

Thus he began, "attentively regard

Adamo's woe.^2 When living, full supply

Ne'er lack'd me of what most I coveted;

One drop of water now, alas! I crave.

The rills, that glitter down the grassy slopes

Of Casentino,^3 making fresh and soft

The banks whereby they glide to Arno's stream,

Stand ever in my view; and not in vain;

For more the pictured semblance dries me up,

Much more than the disease, which makes the flesh

Desert these shrivel'd cheeks. So from the place,

Where I transgress'd, stern justice urging me,

Takes means to quicken more my laboring sighs.

There is Romena, where I falsified

The metal with the Baptist's form imprest,

For which on earth I left my body burnt.

But if I here might see the sorrowing soul

Of Guido, Alessandro, or their brother,

For Branda's limpid spring^4 I would not change

The welcome sight. One is e'en now within,

If truly the mad spirits tell, that round

Are wandering. But wherein besteads me that?

My limbs are fetter'd. Were I but so light,

That I each hundred years might move one inch,

I had set forth already on this path,

Seeking him out amidst the shapeless crew,

Although eleven miles it wind, not less

Than half of one across. They brought me down

Among this tribe; induced by them, I stamp'd

The florens with three carats of alloy.^5

"Who are that abject pair," I next inquired,

"That closely bounding thee upon thy right

Lie smoking, like a hand in winter steep'd

In the chill stream?" - "When to this gulf I dropp'd,"

He answer'd, "here I found them; since that hour

They have not turn'd, nor ever shall, I ween,

Till time hath run his course. One is that dame,

The false accuser^6 of the Hebrew youth;

Sinon the other, that false Greek from Troy.

Sharp fever drains the reeky moistness out,

In such a cloud upsteam'd." When that he heard,

One, gall'd perchance to be so darkly named,

With clench'd hand smote him on the braced paunch,

That like a drum resounded: but forthwith

Adamo smote him on the face, the blow

Returning with his arm, that seem'd as hard.

"Though my o'er weighty limbs have ta'en from me

The power to move," said he, "I have an arm

At liberty for such employ." To whom

Was answer'd: "When thou wentest to the fire,

Thou hadst it not so ready at command;

Then readier when it coin'd the impostor gold."

And thus the dropsied: "Ay, now speak'st thou true:

But there thou gavest not such true testimony,

When thou wast question'd of the truth, at Troy."

"If I spake false, thou falsely stamp'dst the coin,"

Said Sinon; "I am here for but one fault,

And thou for more than any imp beside."

"Remember," he replied, "O perjured one!

The horse remember, that did teem with death;

And all the world be witness to thy guilt."

"To thine," return'd the Greek, "witness the thirst

Whence thy tongue cracks, witness the fluid mound

Rear'd by thy belly up before thine eyes,

A mass corrupt." To whow the coiner thus:

"Thy mouth gapes wide as ever to let pass

Its evil saying. Me if thirst assails,

Yet I am stuft with moisture. Thou art parch'd:

Pains rack thy head: no urging wouldst thou need

To make thee lap Narcissus' mirror up."

I was all fix'd to listen, when my guide

Admonish'd: "Now beware. A little more,

And I do quarrel with thee." I perceived

How angrily he spake, and toward him turn'd

With shame so poignant, as remember'd yet

Confounds me. As a man that dreams of harm

Befallen him, dreaming wishes it a dream,

And that which is, desires as if it were not;

Such then was I, who, wanting power to speak,

Wish'd to excuse myself, and all the while

Excused me, though unweeting that I did.

"More grievous fault than thine has been, less shame,"

My master cried, "might expiate. Therefore cast

All sorrow from thy soul; and if again

Chance bring thee, where like conference is held,

Think I am ever at thy side. To hear

Such wrangling is a joy for vulgar minds."

[Footnote 1: Gianni Schicchi, of the family of Cavalcanti, possessed such a

faculty of molding his features to the resemblance of others, that he was

employed by Simon Donati to personate Buoso Donati, then recently deceased,

and to make a will, leaving Simon his heir; for which service he was

remunerated with a mare of extraordinary value, here called "the lady of the


[Footnote 2: Adamo of Brescia, at the instigation of Guido, Alessandro, and

their brother Aghiunlfo, lords of Romena, counterfeited the coin of Florence;

for which crime he was burnt.]

[Footnote 3: Romena, a part of Casentino.]

[Footnote 4: A fountain at Siena.]

[Footnote 5: The floren was a coin that ought to have had twenty - four carats

of pure gold. Villani relates that it was first used at Florence in 1252, an

era of great prosperity for the republic; before which time their most

valuable coinage was of silver.]

[Footnote 6: Potiphar's wife.]

Canto XXXI


     The Poets, following the sound of a loud horn, are led by it to the ninth

circle, in which there are four rounds, one enclosed within the other, and

containing as many sorts of traitors; but the present Canto shows only that

the circle is encompassed with Giants, one of whom. Antaeus, takes them both

in his arms and places them at the bottom of the circle.

The very tongue, whose keen reproof before

Had wounded me, that either cheek was stain'd,

Now minister'd my cure. So have I heard,

Achilles' and his father's javelin caused

Pain first, and then the boon of health restored.

Turning our back upon the vale of woe,

We cross'd the encircled mound in silence. There

Was less than day and less than night, that far

Mine eye advanced not: but I heard a horn

Sounded so loud, the peal it rang had made

The thunder feeble. Following its course

The adverse way, my strained eyes were bent

On that one spot. So terrible a blast

Orlando^1 blew not, when that dismal rout

O'er threw the host of Charlemain, and quench'd

His saintly warfare. Thitherward not long

My head was raised, when many a lofty tower

Methought I spied. "Master," said I, "what land

Is this?" He answer'd straight: "Too long a space

Of intervening darkness has thine eye

To traverse: thou hast therefore widely err'd

In thy imagining. Thither arrived

Thou well shalt see, how distance can delude

The sense. A little therefore urge thee on."

Then tenderly he caught me by the hand;

"Yet know," said he, "ere farther we advance,

That it less strange may seem, these are not towers,

But giants. In the pit they stand immersed,

Each from his navel downward, round the bank."

As when a fog disperseth gradually,

Our vision traces what the mist involves

Condensed in air; so piercing through the gross

And gloomy atmosphere, as more and more

We near'd toward the brink, mine error fled

And fear came o'er me. As with circling round

Of turrets, Montereggion^2 crowns his walls;

E'en thus the shore, encompassing the abyss,

Was turreted with giants, half their length

Uprearing, horrible, whom Jove from Heaven

Yet threatens, when his muttering thunder rolls.

Of one already I descried the face,

Shoulders and breast, and of the belly huge

Great part, and both arms down along his ribs.

All - teeming Nature, when her plastic hand

Left framing of these monsters, did display

Past doubt her wisdom, taking from mad War

Such slaves to do his bidding; and if she

Repent her not of the elephant and whale,

Who ponders well confesses her therein

Wiser and more discreet; for when brute force

And evil will are back'd with subtlety,

Resistance none avails. His visage seem'd

In length and bulk, as doth the pine^3 that tops

Saint Peter's Roman fane; and the other bones

Of like proportion, so that from above

The bank, which girdled him below, such height

Arose his stature, that three Friezelanders

Had striven in vain to reach but to his hair.

Full thirty ample palms was he exposed

Downward from whence a man his garment loops.

"Raphel^4 bai ameth, sabi almi:"

So shouted his fierce lips, which sweeter hymns

Became not; and my guide address'd him thus:

"O senseless spirit! let thy horn for thee

Interpret: therewith vent thy rage, if rage

Or other passion wring thee. Search thy neck,

There shalt thou find the belt that binds it on.

Spirit confused! lo, on thy mighty breast

Where hangs the baldrick!" Then to me he spake:

"He doth accuse himself. Nimrod is this,

Through whose ill counsel in the world no more

One tongue prevails. But pass we on, nor waste

Our words; for so each language is to him,

As his to others, understood by none."

Then to the leftward turning sped we forth,

And at a sling's throw found another shade

Far fiercer and more huge. I cannot say

What master hand had girt him; but he held

Behind the right arm fetter'd, and before,

The other, with a chain, that fasten'd him

From the neck down; and five times round his form

Apparent met the wreathed links. "This proud one

Would of his strength against almighty Jove

Make trial," said my guide: "whence he is thus

Requited: Ephialtes his they call.

Great was his prowess, when the giants brought

Fear on the gods: those arms, which then he plied,

Now moves he never." Forthwith I return'd:

"Fain would I, if't were possible, mine eyes,

Of Briareus immeasurable, gain'd

Experience next." He answered: "Thou shalt see

Not far from hence Antaeus, who both speaks

And is unfetter'd, who shall place us there

Where guilt is at its depth. Far onward stands

Whom thou wouldst fain behold, in chains, and made

Like to this spirit, save that in his looks

More fell he seems." By violent earthquake rock'd

Ne'er shook a tower, so reeling to its base,

As Ephialtes. More than ever then

I dreaded death; nor than the terror more

Had needed, if I had not seen the cords

That held him fast. We, straightway journeying on,

Came to Antaeus, who, five ells complete

Without the head, forth issued from the cave.

"O thou, who in the fortunate vale,^5 that made

Great Scipio heir of glory, when his sword

Drove back the troop of Hannibal in flight,

Who thence of old didst carry for thy spoil

An hundred lions; and if thou hadst fought

In the high conflict on thy brethren's side,

Seems as men yet believed, that through thine arm

The sons of earth had conquer'd; now vouchsafe

To place us down beneath, where numbing cold

Locks up Cocytus. Force not that we crave

Or Tityus' help or Typhon's. Here is one

Can give what in this realm ye covet. Stoop

Therefore, nor scornfully distort thy lip.

He in the upper world can yet bestow

Renown on thee; for he doth live, and looks

For life yet longer, if before the time

Grace call him not unto herself." Thus spake

The teacher. He in haste forth stretch'd his hands,

And caught my guide. Alcides^6 whilom felt

That grapple, straiten'd sore. Soon as my guide

Had felt it, he bespake me thus: "This way,

That I may clasp thee;" then so caught me up,

That we were both one burden. As appears

The tower of Carisenda,^7 from beneath

Where it doth lean, if chance a passing cloud

So sail across, that opposite it hangs;

Such then Antaeus seem'd, as at mine ease

I mark'd him stooping. I were fain at times

To have past another way. Yet in the abyss,

That Lucifer with Judas low ingulfs,

Lightly he placed us; nor, there leaning, stay'd;

But rose, as in a bark the stately mast.

[Footnote 1: When Charlemain with all his peerage fell at Fontarabia." Milton,

Paradis Lost, b. i. 586. See Warton's Hist. of Eng. Poetry, vol. i. sect. iii.

p. 132. "This is the horn which Orlando won from the giant Jatmund, and which,

as Turpin and the Islandic bards report, was endued with magical power, and

might be heard at the distance of twenty miles." See the Paradise, Canto


[Footnote 2: A castle near Siena.]

[Footnote 3: "The pine." "The large pine of bronze, which once ornamented the

top of the mole of Adrian, afterwards decorated the top of the belfry of St.

Peter; and having (according to Buti) been thrown down by lightning, it was

transferred to the place where it now is, in the Pope's garden, by the side of

the great corridor of Belvedere. In the time of our Poet, the pine was then

either on the belfry or on the steps of St. Peter's."]

[Footnote 4: Unmeaning sounds, meant, it is supposed, to express the confusion

at the building of Babel.]

[Footnote 5: The country near Carthage.]

[Footnote 6: The combat between Hercules (Alcides) and Antaeus is adduced by

the poet in his treatise "De Monarchia," lib. ii., as proof of God's judgment

displayed in the duel, according to the singular superstition of those times.]

[Footnote 7: The leaning tower at Bologna.]



     This Canto treats of the first, and, in part, of the second of those

rounds, into which the ninth and last, or frozen circle, is divided. In the

former, called Caina, Dante finds Camiccione de' Pazzi, who gives him an

account of other sinners who are there punished; and in the next, named

Antenora, he hears in like manner from Bocca degli Abbati who his fellow -

sufferers are.

Could I command rough rhymes and hoarse, to suit

That hole of sorrow o'er which every rock

His firm abutment rears, then might the vein

Of fancy rise full springing: but not mine

Such measures, and with faltering awe I touch

The mighty theme; for to describe the depth

Of all the universe, is no emprise

To jest with, and demands a tongue not used

To infant babbling. But let them assist

My song, the tuneful maidens, by whose aid

Amphion wall'd in Thebes; so with the truth

My speech shall best accord. Oh ill - starr'd folk,

Beyond all others wretched! who abide

In such a mansion, as scarce thought finds words

To speak of, better had ye here on earth

Been flocks, or mountain goats. As down we stood

In the dark pit beneath the giants' feet,

But lower far than they, and I did gaze

Still on the lofty battlement, a voice

Bespake me thus: "Look how thou walkest. Take

Good heed, thy soles do tread not on the heads

Of thy poor brethren." Thereupon I turn'd,

And saw before and underneath my feet

A lake, whose frozen surface liker seem'd

To glass than water. Not so thick a veil

In winter e'er hath Austrian Danube spread

O'er his still course, nor Tanais far remote

Under the chilling sky. Roll'd o'er that mass

Had Tabernich or Pietrapana^1 fallen,

Not e'en its rim had creak'd. As peeps the frog

Croaking above the wave, what time in dreams

The village gleaner oft pursues her toil,

So, to where modest shame appears, thus low

Blue pinch'd and shrined in ice the spirits stood,

Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork.

His face each downward held; their mouth the cold,

Their eyes express'd the dolour of their heart.

A space I look'd around, then at my feet

Saw two so strictly join'd, that of their head

The very hairs were mingled. "Tell me ye,

Whose bosoms thus together press," said I,

"Who are ye?" At that sound their necks they bent;

And when their looks were lifted up to me,

Straightway their eyes, before all moist within,

Distill'd upon their lips, and the frost bound

The tears betwixt those orbs, and held them there.

Plank unto plank hath never cramp closed up

So stoutly. Whence, like two enraged goats,

They clash'd together: them such fury seized.

And one, from whom the cold both ears had reft,

Exclaim'd, still looking downward: "Why on us

Dost speculate so long? If thou wouldst know

Who are these two,^2 the valley, whence his wave

Bisenzio slopes, did for its master own

Their sire Alberto, and next him themselves.

They from one body issued: and throughout

Caina thou mayst search, nor find a shade

More worthy in congealment to be fix'd;

Not him,^3 whose breast and shadow Arthur's hand

At that one blow dissever'd; not Focaccia,^4

No, not this spirit, whose o'erjutting head

Obstructs my onward view; he bore the name

Of Mascheroni:^5 Tuscan if thou be,

Well knowest who he was. And to cut short

All further question, in my form behold

What once was Camiccione.^6 I await

Carlino^7 here my kinsman, whose deep guilt

Shall wash out mine." A thousand visages

Then mark'd I, which the keen and eager cold

Had shaped into a doggish grin; whence creeps

A shivering horror o'er me, at the thought

Of those frore shallows. While we journey'd on

Toward the middle, at whose point unites

All heavy substance, and I trembling went

Through that eternal chillness, I know not

If will it were, or destiny, or chance,

But, passing 'midst the heads, my foot did strike

With violent blow against the face of one.

"Wherefore dost bruise me?" weeping the exclaim'd;

"Unless thy errand be some fresh revenge

For Montaperto,^8 wherefore troublest me?"

I thus: "Instructor, now await me here,

That I through him may rid me of my doubt:

Thenceforth what haste thou wilt." The teacher paused

And to that shade I spake, who bitterly

Still cursed me in his wrath. "What art thou, speak,

That railest thus on others?" He replied:

"Now who art thou, that smiting others' cheeks,

Through Antenora^9 roamest, with such force

As were past sufferance, wert thou living still?"

"And I am living, to thy joy perchance,"

Was my reply, "if fame be dear to thee,

That with the rest I may thy name enrol."

"The contrary of what I covet most,"

Said he, "thou tender'st: hence! nor vex me more.

Ill knowest thou to flatter in this vale."

Then seizing on his hinder scalp I cried"

"Name thee, or not a hair shall tarry here."

"Rend all away," he answer'd, "yet for that

I will not tell, nor show thee, who I am,

Though at my head thou pluck a thousand times."

Now I had grasp'd his tresses, and stript off

More than one tuft, he barking, with his eyes

Drawn in and downward, when another cried,

"What ails thee, Bocca? Sound not loud enough

Thy chattering teeth, but thou must bark outright?

What devil wrings thee?" - "Now," said I, "be dumb,

Accursed traitor! To thy shame, of thee

True tidings will I bear." - "Off!" he replied;

"Tell what thou list: but, as thou 'scape from hence,

To speak of him whose tongue hath been so glib,

Forget not: here he wails the Frenchman's gold.

'Him of Duera,'^10 Thou canst say, 'I mark'd,

Where the starved sinners pine.' If thou be ask'd

What other shade was with them, at thy side

Is Beccaria,^11 whose red gorge distain'd

The biting axe of Florence. Further on,

If I misdeem not, Soldanieri,^12 bides,

With Ganellon,^13 and Tribaldello,^14 him

Who oped Faenza when the people slept."

We now had left him, passing on our way,

When I beheld two spirits by the ice

Pent in one hollow, that the head of one

Was cowl unto the other; and as bread

Is raven'd up through hunger, the uppermost

Did so apply his fangs to the other's brain,

Where the spine joins it. Not more furiously

On Menalippus' temples Tydeus gnaw'd,

Than on that skull and on its garbage he.

"O thou! who show'st so beastly sign of hate

'Gainst him thou prey'st on, let me hear," said I,

"The cause, on such condition, that if right

Warrant thy grievance, knowing who ye are,

And what the color of his sinning was,

I may repay thee in the world above,

If that, wherewith I speak, be moist so long."

[Footnote 1: Tabernich or Pietrapana." The one a mountain in Sclavonia, the

other in that tract of country called the Garfagnana, not far from Lucca.]

[Footnote 2: Alessandro and Napoleone, sons of Alberto Alberti, who murdered

each other. They were proprietors of the valley of Falterona, where the

Bisenzio rises, falling into the Arno six miles from Florence.]

[Footnote 3: Mordred, son of King Arthur. In the romance of Lancelot of the

Lake, Arthur, having discovered the traitorous intentions of his son, pierces

him through with his lance, so that the sunbeam passes through the body.]

[Footnote 4: Focaccia of Cancellieri (the Pistoian family), whose atrocious

act of revenge against his uncle is said to have given rise to the parties,

Bianchi and Neri, in the year 1300.]

[Footnote 5: Sassol Mascheroni, a Florentine, who murdered his uncle.]

[Footnote 6: Camiccione de' Pazzi of Valdarno, by whom his kinsman Ubertino

was treacherously put to death.]

[Footnote 7: "Carlino." One of the same family. He betrayed the Castel di

Piano Travigne, in Valdarno, to the Florentines, after the refugees of the

Bianca and Ghibelline party had defended it against a siege for twenty - nine

days, in the summer of 1302.]

[Footnote 8: The defeat of the Guelfi at Montaperto through the treachery of

Bocca degli Abbati, who, during the engagement, cut off the hand of Giacopo

del Vacca de' Pazzi, the Florentine standard - bearer.]

[Footnote 9: So called from Antenor, who, according to Dictys Cretensis (de

Bello Troj. lib. v.) and Dares Phrygius (De Excidio Trojae) betrayed Troy his

country," Lombardi.]

[Footnote 10: Buoso of Cremona, of the family of Duera, bribed by Guy de

Montfort to leave a pass between Piedmont and Parma, with the defence of which

he had been intrusted by the Ghibellines, open to the army of Charles of

Anjou, A. D. 1265, at which the people of Cremona were so enraged that they

extirpated the whole family. G. Villani.]

[Footnote 11: Abbot of Vallombrosa, Pope's legate at Florence, beheaded for

his intrigues with the Ghibellines.]

[Footnote 12: "Gianni Soldanieri," says Villani, Hist. lib. vii. c. xiv., "put

himself at the head of the people, in the hopes of rising into power, not

aware that the result would be mischief to the Ghibelline party, and his own

ruin." - A. D. 1266.]

[Footnote 13: The betrayer of Charlemain, mentioned by Archbishop Turpin. He

is a type of treachery with the poets of the Middle Ages.]

[Footnote 14: Tribaldello de' Manfredi, bribed to betray the city of Faenza,




     The Poet is told by Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi of the cruel manner in

which he and his children were famished in the tower at Pisa, by command of

the Archbishop Ruggieri. He next discourses of the third round, called

Ptolomea, wherein those are punished who have betrayed others under the

semblance of kindness; and among these he finds the Friar Alberigo de'

Manfredi, who tells him of one whose soul was already tormented in that place,

though his body appeared still to be alive upon the earth, being yielded up to

the governance of a fiend.

His jaws uplifting form their fell repast,

That sinner wiped them on the hairs o' the head,

Which he behind had mangled, then began:

"Thy will obeying, I call up afresh

Sorrow past cure; which, but to think of, wrings

My heart, or ere I tell on 't. But if words,

That I may utter, shall prove seed to bear

Fruit of eternal infamy to him,

The traitor whom I gnaw at, thou at once

Shalt see me speak and weep. Who thou mayst be

I know not, nor how here below art come:

But Florentine thou seemest of a truth,

When I do hear thee. Know, I was on earth

Count Ugolino,^1 and the Archbishop he

Ruggieri. Why I neighbor him so close,

Now list. That through effect of his ill thoughts

In him my trust reposing, I was ta'en

And after murder'd, need is not I tell.

What therefore thou canst not have heard, that is,

How cruel was the murder, shalt thou hear,

And know if he have wrong'd me. A small grate

Within that mew, which for my sake the name

Of Famine bears, where others yet must pine,

Already through its opening several moons

Had shown me, when I slept the evil sleep

That from the future tore the curtain off.

This one, methought, as master of the sport,

Rode forth to chase the gaunt wolf, and his whelps,

Unto the mountain^2 which forbids the sight

Of Lucca to the Pisan. With lean brachs

Inquisitive and keen, before him ranged

Lanfranchi with Sismondi and Gualandi.

After short course the father and the sons

Seem'd tired and lagging, and methought I saw

The sharp tusks gore their sides. When I awoke,

Before the dawn, amid their sleep I heard

My sons (for they were with me) weep and ask

For bread. Right cruel art thou, if no pang

Thou feel at thinking what my heart foretold;

And if not now, why use thy tears to flow?

Now had they waken'd; and the hour drew near

When they were wont to bring us food; the mind

Of each misgave him through his dream, and I

Heard, at its outlet underneath, lock'd up

The horrible tower: whence, uttering not a word,

I look'd upon the visage of my sons.

I wept not: so all stone I felt within.

They wept: and one, my little Anselmo, cried,

'Thou lookest so! Father, what ails thee?' Yet

I shed no tear, nor answer'd all that day

Nor the next night, until another sun

Came out upon the world. When a faint beam

Had to our doleful prison made its way,

And in four countenances I described

The image of my own, on either hand

Through agony I bit; and they, who thought

I did it through desire of feeding, rose

O' the sudden, and cried, 'Father, we should grieve

Far less if thou wouldst eat of us: thou gavest

These weeds of miserable flesh we wear;

And do thou strip them off from us again.'

Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down

My spirit in stillness. That day and the next

We all were silent. Ah, obdurate earth!

Why open'dst not upon us? When we came

To the fourth day, then Gaddo at my feet

Outstretch'd did fling him, crying, 'Hast no help

For me, my father!' There he died; and e'en

Plainly as thou seest me, saw I the three

Fall one by one 'twixt the fifth day and sixth:

Whence I betook me, now grown blind, to grope

Over them all, and for three days aloud

Call'd on them who were dead. Then, fasting got

The mastery of grief." Thus having spoke,

Once more upon the wretched skull his teeth

He fasten'd like a mastiff's 'gainst the bone,

Firm and unyielding. O thou Pisa! shame

Of all the people, who their dwelling make

In that fair region, where the Italian voice

Is heard; since that thy neighbors are so slack

To punish, from their deep foundations rise

Capraia and Gorgona,^3 and dam up

The mouth of Arno; that each soul in thee

May perish in the waters. What if fame

Reported that thy castles were betray'd

By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou

To stretch his children on the rack. For them,

Brigata, Uguccione, and the pair

Of gentle ones, of whom my song hath told,

Their tender years, thou modern Thebes, did make

Uncapable of guilt. Onward we pass'd,

Where others, skarf'd in rugged folds of ice,

Not on their feet were turn'd, but each reversed.

There, very weeping suffers not to weep;

For, at their eyes, grief, seeking passage, finds

Impediment, and rolling inward turns

For increase of sharp anguish: the first tears

Hang cluster'd, and like crystal vizors show,

Under the socket brimming all the cup.

Now though the cold had from my face dislodged

each feeling, as 't were callous, yet me seem'd

Some breath of wind I felt. "Whence cometh this,"

Said I, "my Master? Is not here below

All vapor quench'd?" - "Thou shalt be speedily,"

He answer'd, "where thine eyes shall tell thee whence,

The cause descrying of this airy shower."

Then cried out one, in the chill crust who mourn'd:

"O souls! so cruel, that the farthest post

Hath been assign'd you, from this face remove

The harden'd veil; that I may vent the grief

Impregnate at my heart, some little space,

Ere it congeal again." I thus replied:

"Say who thou wast, if thou wouldst have mine aid;

And if I extricate thee not, far down

As to the lowest ice may I descend."

"The friar Alberigo,"^4 answer'd he,

"Am I, who from the evil garden pluck'd

Its fruitage, and am here repaid, the date

More luscious for my fig." - "Hah!" I exclaim'd,

"Art thou, too, dead?" "How in the world aloft

It fareth with my body," answer'd he,

"I am right ignorant. Such privilege

Hath Ptolomea,^5 that oft - times the soul

Drops hither, ere by Atropos divorced.

And that thou mayst wipe out more willingly

The glazed tear - drops that o'erlay mine eyes,

Know that the soul, that moment she betrays,

As I did, yields her body to a fiend

Who after moves and governs it at will,

Till all its time be rounded: headlong she

Falls to this cistern. And perchance above

Doth yet appear the body of a ghost,

Who here behind me winters. Him thou know'st,

If thou but newly art arrived below.

The years are many that have passed away,

Since to this fastness Branca Doria^6 came."

"Now," answer'd I, "methinks thou mockest me;

For Branca Doria never yet hath died,

But doth all natural functions of a man,

Eats, drinks, and sleeps, and putteth raiment on."

He thus: "Not yet unto that upper foss

By th' evil talons guarded, where the pitch

Tenacious boils, had Michel Zanche reach'd,

When this one left a demon in his stead

In his own body, and of one his kin,

Who with him treachery wrought. But now put forth

Thy hand, and ope mine eyes." I oped them not.

Ill manners were best courtesy to him.

Ah Genoese! men perverse in every way

With every foulness stain'd why from the earth

Are ye not cancel'd? Such an one of yours

I with Romagna's darkest spirit^7 found,

As, for his doings, even now in soul

Is in Cocytus plunged, and yet doth seem

In body still alive upon the earth.

[Footnote 1: "Count Ugolino." - "In the year 1288, in the month of July, Pisa

was much divided by competitors for the sovereignty; one party, composed of

certain of the Guelfi, being headed by the Judge Nino di Gallura de' Visconti;

another, consisting of others of the same faction, by the Count Ugolino de'

Gherardeschi; and a third by the Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini, with the

Lanfranchi, Sismondi, Gualandi, and other Ghibelline houses. The Count

Ugolino, to effect his purpose, united with the archbishop and his party, and

having betrayed Nino, his sister's son, they contrived that he and his

followers should either be driven out of Pisa, or their persons seized. Nino

hearing this, and not seeing any means of defending himself, retired to Calci,

his castle, and formed an alliance with the Florentines and the people of

Lucca, against the Pisans. The count, before Nino was gone, in order to cover

his treachery, when everything was settled for his expulsion, quitted Pisa,

and repaired to a manor of his called Settimo; whence, as soon as he was

informed of Nino's departure, he returned to Pisa with great rejoicing and

festivity, and was elevated to the supreme power with every demonstration of

triumph and honor. But his greatness was not of long continuance. It pleased

the Almighty that a total reverse of fortune should ensue, as a punishment for

his acts of treachery and guilt; for he was said to have poisoned the Count

Anselmo da Capraia, his sister's son, on account of the envy and fear excited

in his mind by the highs' esteem in which the gracious manners of Anselmo were

held by the Pisans. The power of the Guelfi being so much diminished, the

archbishop devised means to betray the Count Ugolino, and caused him to be

suddenly attacked in his palace by the fury of the people, whom he had

exasperated, by telling them that Ugolino had betrayed Pisa, and given up

their castles to the citizens of Florence and of Lucca. He was immediately

compelled to surrender; his bastard son and his grandson fell in the assault;

and two of his sons, with their two sons also, were conveyed to prison. . . .

In the following March, the Pisans, who had imprisoned the Count Ugolino, with

two of his sons and two of his grandchildren, the offspring of his son the

Count Guelfo, in a tower on the Piazza of the Anziani, caused the tower to be

locked, the key thrown into the Arno, and all food to be withheld from them.

In a few days they died of hunger; but the Count first with loud cries

declared his penitence, and yet neither priest nor friar was allowed to shrive

him. All the five, when dead, were dragged out of the prison, and meanly

interred; and from thenceforward the tower was called the Tower of Famine, and

so shall ever be." G. Villani, lib. vii.]

[Footnote 2: The mountain S. Giuliano between Pisa and Lucca.]

[Footnote 3: Small islands, near the mouth of the Arno.]

[Footnote 4: The friar Alberigo," Alberigo de' Manfredi, of Faenza, one of the

Frati Godenti (Joyous Friars), who having quarrelled with some of his

brotherhood, under pretence of wishing to be reconciled, invited them to a

banquet, at the conclusion of which he called for the fruit, a signal for the

assassins to rush in and despatch those whom he had marked for destruction.

Hence, adds Landino, it is said proverbially of one who has been stabbed, that

he had had some of the friar Alberigo's fruit.]

[Footnote 5: "Ptolomea." This circle is named Ptolomea from Ptolemy the son of

Abubus, by whom Simon and his sons were murdered, at a great banquet he had

made for them. See I Maccabees, ch. xvi. Or from Ptolemy, King of Egypt, the

betrayer of Pompey the Great.]

[Footnote 6: "Branca Doria." The family of Doria was possessed of great

influence in Genoa. Branca is said to have murdered his father - in - law,

Michel Zanche. See Canto xxii.]

[Footnote 7: The friar Alberigo.]



     In the fourth and last round of the ninth circle, those who have betrayed

their benefactors are wholly covered with ice. And in the midst is Lucifer, at

whose back Dante and Virgil ascend, till by a secret path they reach the

surface of the other hemisphere of the earth, and once more obtain sight of

the stars.

"The banners of Hell's Monarch do come forth

Toward us; therefore look," so spake my guide,

"If thou discern him." As, when breathes a cloud

Heavy and dense, or when the shades of night

Fall on our hemisphere, seems view'd from far

A windmill, which the blast stirs briskly round;

Such was the fabric then methought I saw.

To shield me from the wind, forthwith I drew

Behind my guide: no covert else was there.

Now came I (and with fear I bid my strain

Record the marvel) where the souls were all

Whelm'd underneath, transparent, as through glass

Pellucid the frail stem. Some prone were laid;

Others stood upright, this upon the soles,

That on his head, a third with face to feet

Arch'd like a bow. When to the point we came,

Whereat my guide was pleased that I should see

The creature eminent in beauty once,

He from before me stepp'd and made me pause.

"Lo!" he exclaim'd, "lo! Dis; and lo! the place,

Where thou hast need to arm thy heart with strength."

How frozen and how faint I then became,

Ask me not, reader! for I write it not;

Since words would fail to tell thee of my state.

I was not dead nor living. Think thyself,

If quick conception work in thee at all,

How I did feel. That emperor, who sways

The realm of sorrow, at mid breast from the ice

Stood forth; and I in stature am more like

A giant, than the giants are his arms.

Mark now how great that whole must be, which suits

With such a part. If he were beautiful

As he is hideous now, and yet did dare

To scowl upon his Maker, well from him

May all our misery flow. Oh what a sight!

How passing strange it seem'd, when I did spy

Upon his head three faces: one in front

Of hue vermilion, the other two with this

Midway each shoulder join'd and at the crest;

The right 'twixt wan and yellow seem'd; the left

To look on, such as come from whence old Nile

Stoops to the lowlands. Under each shot forth

Two mighty wings, enormous as became

A bird so vast. Sails never such I saw

Outstretch'd on the wide sea. No plumes had they,

But were in texture like a bat; and these

He flapp'd i' th' air, that from him issued still

Three winds, wherewith Cocytus to its depth

Was frozen. At six eyes he wept: the tears

Adown three chins distill'd with bloody foam.

At every mouth his teeth a sinner champ'd,

Bruised as with ponderous engine; so that three

Were in this guise tormented. But far more

Than from that gnawing, was the foremost pang'd

By the fierce rending, whence oft - times the back

Was stript of all its skin. "That upper spirit,

Who hath worst punishment," so spake my guide,

"Is Judas, he that hath his head within

And plies the feet without. Of th' other two,

Whose heads are under, from the murky jaw

Who hangs, is Brutus:^1 lo! how he doth writhe

And speaks not. The other, Cassius, that appears

So large of limb. But night now reascends;

And it is time for parting. All is seen."

I clipp'd him round the neck; for so he bade:

And noting time and place, he, when the wings

Enough were oped, caught fast the shaggy sides,

And down from pile to pile descending stepp'd

Between the thick fell and the jagged ice.

Soon as he reach'd the point, whereat the thigh

Upon the swelling of the haunches turns,

My leader there, with pain and struggling hard,

Turn'd round his head where his feet stood before,

And grappled at the fell as one who mounts;

That into Hell methought we turn'd again.

"Expect that by such stairs as these," thus spake

The teacher, panting like a man forespent,

"We must depart from evil so extreme:"

Then at a rocky opening issued forth,

And placed me on the brink to sit, next join'd

With wary step my side. I raised mine eyes,

Believing that I Lucifer should see

Where he was lately left, but saw him now

With legs help upward. Let the grosser sort,

Who see not what the point was I had past,

Bethink them if sore toil oppress'd me then.

"Arise," my master cried, "upon thy feet.

The way is long, and much uncouth the road;

And now within one hour and a half of noon^2

The sun returns." It was no palace - hall

Lofty and luminous wherein we stood,

But natural dungeon where ill - footing was

And scant supply of light. "Ere from the abyss

I separate," thus when risen I began:

"My guide! vouchsafe few words to set me free

From error's thraldom. Where is now the ice?

How standeth he in posture thus reversed?

And how from eve to morn in space so brief

Hath the sun made his transit?" He in few

Thus answering spake: "Thou deemest thou art still

On the other side the centre, where I grasp'd

The abhorred worm that boreth through the world.

Thou wast on the other side, so long as I

Descended; when I turn'd, thou didst o'erpass

That point, to which from every part is dragg'd

All heavy substance. Thou art now arrived

Under the hemisphere opposed to that,

Which the great continent doth overspread,

And underneath whose canopy expired

The Man, that was born sinless and so lived.

Thy feet are planted on the smallest sphere,

Whose other aspect is Judecca. Morn

Here rises, when there evening sets: and he,

Whose shaggy pile we scaled, yet standeth fix'd,

As at the first. On this part he fell down

From Heaven; and th' earth here prominent before,

Through fear of him did veil her with the sea,

And to our hemisphere retired. Perchance,

To shun him, was the vacant space left here,

By what of firm land on this side appears,^3

That sprang aloof." There is a place beneath,

From Belzebub as distant, as extends

The vaulted tomb;^4 discover'd not by sight,

But by the sound of brooklet, that descends

This way along the hollow of a rock,

Which, as it winds with no precipitous course,

The wave hath eaten. By that hidden way

My guide and I did enter, to return

To the fair world: and heedless of repose

We climb'd, he first, I following his steps,

Till on our view the beautiful lights of Heaven

Dawn'd through a circular opening in the cave:

Thence issuing we again beheld the stars.

[Footnote 1: "Brutus." Landino struggles to extricate Brutus from the unworthy

lot which is here assigned him. He maintains that by Brutus and Cassius are

not meant the individuals known by those names, but any who put a lawful

monarch to death. Yet if Caesar was such, the conspirators might be regarded

as deserving of their doom. If Dante, however, believed Brutus to have been

actuated by evil motives in putting Caesar to death, the excellence of the

patriot's character in other respects would only have aggravated his guilt in

that particular.]

[Footnote 2: The Poet uses the Hebrew manner of computing the day, according

to which the third hour answers to our twelve o'clock at noon.]

[Footnote 3: The mountain of Purgatory.]

[Footnote 4: "The vaulted tomb" ("La tomba"). This word is used to express the

whole depth of the infernal region.]